Prediction of Concentration of Animal Fat in Mixture with Vegetable Oil by Multivariate Calibration Associated with Spectrofluorimetry


Total spectrofluorimetry associated with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate samples of vegetable oil and animal fat. In addition, a multivariate calibration model was developed that combines spectroflurimetry with Partial Least Squares (PLS) for prediction of concentration of animal fat in mixture with vegetable oil. The multivariate calibration model had an R2 value of 0.98098, which indicates the accuracy of the model. This method has potential application in the control of quality of raw material for production of biodiesel. The control of the concentration of animal fat is important because animal fat is more susceptible to oxidation than vegetable oil. Furthermore, high concentrations of animal fats may increase electricity costs for biodiesel production due to the high melting points of saturated fats that solidify at room temperature and cause the fouling and clogging of pipes.

Share and Cite:

M. Meira, C. Quintella, E. Ribeiro, A. Guimarães, M. Santos, G. Cerqueira, A. Cid, S. Luna and W. Silva, "Prediction of Concentration of Animal Fat in Mixture with Vegetable Oil by Multivariate Calibration Associated with Spectrofluorimetry," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 99-103. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2013.42013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] C. M. Quintella, L. S. G. Teixera, M. G. A. Korn, P. R. C. Neto, E. A. Torres, M. P. Castro and C. A. C. Jesus, “Cadeia do Biodiesel da Bancada à Indústria: Uma Vis?o Geral Com Prospec??o de Tarefas e Oportunidades Para P&D&I,” Química Nova, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2009, pp. 793 808. doi:10.1590/S0100-40422009000300022
[2] A. Monyem and J. H. Van Gerpen, “The Effect of Bio diesel Oxidation on Engine Performance and Emissions,” Biomass & Bioenergy, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2001, pp. 317-325. doi:10.1016/S0961-9534(00)00095-7
[3] A. Monyem, J. H. Van Gerpen and M. Canakci, “The Effect of Timing and Oxidation on Emissions from Bio diesel-Fueled Engines,” Transactions of the ASABE, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2001, pp. 35-42.
[4] E. Sendzikiene, V. Makareviciene and P. Janulis, “Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Fuel Produced from Fatty Wastes,” Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2005, pp. 335-339.
[5] S. B. Engelsen, “Explorative Spectrometric Evaluations of Frying Oil Deterioration,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 74, No. 12, 1997, pp. 1495-1508. doi:10.1007/s11746-997-0068-2
[6] E. Sikorska, T. Gorecki, I. V. Khmelinskii, M. Sikorski and J. Koziol, “Classification of Edible Oils Using Synchronous Scanning Fluorescence Spectroscopy,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2005, pp. 217-225. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.028
[7] P. N. Jensen, J. Christensen and S. B. Engelsen, “Oxidative Changes in Pork Scratchings, Peanuts, Oatmeal and Muesli Viewed by Fluorescence, Near-Infrared and Infrared Spectroscopy,” European Food Research and Technology, Vol. 219, No. 3, 2004, 294-304. doi:10.1007/s00217-004-0954-x
[8] C. M. Quintella, A. K. Guimar?es and A. P. Musse, “Pat ente tipo PI Nacional em fase de sigilo, PI00002208073 0742-1,” 2009.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.