An Approach to a Universal System of Units
Salama Abdelhady
DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.29071   PDF    HTML     4,013 Downloads   7,372 Views   Citations


According to many scientists, there are some redundancies in the SI system of units. Through an entropy approach that depends on a previous analogy between the electrical, mechanical and thermal fields; it was possible to introduce a system of units that removes such redundancies. According to the second law of thermodynamics, the temperature was defined as a quality of heat. Following a proved analogy, the electrical and magnetic potentials may represent also the qualities of electric and magnetic fluxes. According to published experimental results, the electric and the magnetic potentials generates also electromotive forces, EMF, that were measured by Al-Fe thermocouples. The chemical potential or the concentration gradient generates also an EMF, as in the concentration cells, which is measured here by the same Al-Fe thermocouple. Such measurement-results are introduced to define a unique scale for measuring the potentials or qualities of the thermal, chemical, electric, and magnetic fields. The mentioned qualities are not defined by directly measurable quantities, as length and time, but they are found as functions of dimensionless concentrations of mass or energy fluxes. Hence, the volt, as a unit of the introduced EMF scale for potentials measurement, is postulated as a dimensionless unit. Finally, a universal system of units that is based only on three dimensions; L, T, and E, and four fundamental units; meter, second, Joule and volt is introduced in this paper to delete the SI redundancies. The energy replaces the mass as a fundamental unit in the introduced US as it plays a dominant role in most of the scientific and engineering fields. The ampere is not included as a fundamental unit since the charge is considered as a form of energy that is measured in one of the US fundamental units, Joule. The candela and the mole were also not considered as fundamental units as they can be related to the selected fundamental units by appropriate numbers. The limited number of dimensions in the introduced US simplifies the application of the “π” dimensional theorem to find plausible relations between the main parameters that characterize many physical phenomena and the energy conversions and interactions.

Share and Cite:

S. Abdelhady, "An Approach to a Universal System of Units," Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 2 No. 9, 2010, pp. 549-556. doi: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.29071.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. Abubakr, “On Dimensional Analysis, Redundancy in set of fundamental quantities and Proposal of a New Set,” General Physics, 2007.
[2] X. Borg, “Unified Theory Foundations-The ST System of Units,” Blaze Labs Research, 2005.
[3] S. Abdelhady, “A Three Dimensional System of Units,” Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ap-plied Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, MTC, Cairo, May 2010, paper MD-4.
[4] S. Abdelhady, “A Fundamental Equation of Thermo-dynamics that Embraces Electrical and Magnetic Potentials,” Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis & Applications, Vol. 2, No. 3,2010, pp. 162-168.
[5] A. C. Yunus and A. B. Michael, “Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach,” McGraw-Hill Science Engi-neering, 2006.
[6] P. W. Atkins and J. DePaula, “Physical Chemistry,” 8th Edition, Oxford University Press,W.H. Freeman & Co., 2006.
[7] V. Kumar, J. Singh and S. S. Verma, “Performance Comparison of Some Common Thermocouples for Waste Heat Utilization,” Asian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 21, No. 10, 2009, pp. 62-65.
[8] J. Jewett and R. A. Serway, “Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics,” 7th Edition, Thomson, Brooks/Cole, 2008.
[9] G. D. Yarnold, “Notes on Electric and Magnetic Dimen-sions,” Proceedings of the Physical Society, iopscience.,1942, pp. 189-193.
[10] [S. W. Hawking and G. F. R. Ellis, “The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time,” Cambridge University, 1973.
[11] R. Clarke, “Unit System in Electromagnetism,” 2009.
[12] G. M. Trunov, “Correctness of the International System of Units in the Area of Electromagnetism,” Journal of Measurement Techniques, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1983, pp. 9-10.
[13] A. J. Hewitt, A. Ahfock and S. A. Suslov, “Magnetic Flux Density Distribution in Axial Flux Machine Cores,” Elec-tric Power Applications, IEE Proceedings, 2005, Vol. 152, pp. 292-296.
[14] [14] F. Stevens and F. Charles, “The Six Core Theories of Modern Physics”, MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-69188-4, 1965.
[15] J. L. Flowers, N. J. Cleaton, P. W. Josephs and B. W. Betlev, “Progress toward a Precision Measurement of the Helion Magnetic moment in Bohr Magnetons,” Instru-mentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions, Vol. 48, 1999, pp. 209-211.
[16] R. G. Bartheld and J. A. Kline, “Comparative Efficiency Measurements,” IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1997, pp. 608-614

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.