Research and applications of nuclear tracks: Developments in Pakistan and global comparison


The present paper describes the development and applications of nuclear track detection technique in Pakistan. Pakistan entered in the field of nuclear tracks in early 1970s when it was still quite new. Highlights of successes of different Pakistani laboratories, working on nuclear tracks, achieved on their own or in collaboration with similar centers in the world are described briefly. The robust features of this investigation are the comprehensive investigation of the addressed research, analysis and review of results, and discussions with the perspectives of applications and new research directions. Further analysis of the published results by the present author and some new results are also presented. This paper portrays a comprehensive picture of the nuclear track detection research and technology in Pakistan and can be useful for a similar development in any country around the globe.

Share and Cite:

Rana, M. (2012) Research and applications of nuclear tracks: Developments in Pakistan and global comparison. Natural Science, 4, 950-967. doi: 10.4236/ns.2012.431124.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Westphal, A.J., Price, P.B., Weaver, B.A. and Afanasiev, V.G. (1998) Evidence against stellar chromospheric origin of Galactic cosmic rays. Nature, 396, 50-52. doi:10.1038/23887
[2] Fleischer, R.L., Price, P.B., Symes, E.M. and Miller, D.S. (1964) Fission-track ages and track-annealing behavior of some Micas. Science, 143, 349-351. doi:10.1126/science.143.3604.349
[3] Dartyge, E., Daraud, J.P., Langevin, Y. and Maurette, Y. (1981) New model of nuclear particle tracks in dielectric minerals. Physical Review B, 23, 5213-5229. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.23.5213
[4] Tombrello, T.A., Wif, C.A., Itoh, N. and Nakayama, T. (1984) Formation of ion damage tracks. Physics Letters A, 100, 42-44. doi:10.1016/0375-9601(84)90351-7
[5] Price, P.B., Gerbier, G., Park, H.S. and Salamon, M.H. (1987) Systematics of annealing of tracks of relativistic nuclei in phosphate glass detectors. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, 28, 53-55. doi:10.1016/0168-583X(87)90035-8
[6] Rana, M.A. and Qureshi, I.E. (2002) Studies of CR-39 etch rates. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, 198, 129- 134. doi:10.1016/S0168-583X(02)01526-4
[7] Somogi, G. (1980) Development of etched nuclear tracks. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, 173, 21-42. doi:10.1016/0029-554X(80)90565-0
[8] Pandey, A.K., Kalsi, P.C. and Iyer, R.H. (1998) Effects of high intensity ultrasound in chemical etching of particle tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, 134, 393-399. doi:10.1016/S0168-583X(97)00735-0
[9] Fink, D., Ghosh, S., Klett, R., Dwivedi, K.K., Kobayashi, Y., Hirata, K., Vacik, J., Hnatowicz, V., Cervena, J. and Chadderton, L.T. (1998) Transport processes during the incubation time of ion track etching in polymers. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, 146, 486-490. doi:10.1016/S0168-583X(98)00461-3
[10] Farnan, I., Cho, H. and Weber, W.J. (2007) Quantification of actinide α-radiation damage in minerals and ceramics. Nature, 445, 190-193. doi:10.1038/nature05425
[11] Rana, M.A. (2008) A new method for monitoring the radiation damage in nuclear waste containers using ion channelling. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 35, 1580-1583. doi:10.1016/j.anucene.2008.01.015
[12] Rose, P.H. and Ryding, G. (2006) Concepts and designs of ion implantation equipment for semiconductor processing. Review of Scientific Instruments, 77, 111101. doi:10.1063/1.2354571
[13] Ditlov, V.A., Awad, E.M., Hermsdorf, D. and Fromm, M. (2008) Interpretation of the bulk etching process in LR- 115 detectors by the many-hit model. Radiation Measurements, 43, S82-S86. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.03.071
[14] Tahiri, T.A., Matiullah and Subhani, M.S. (2003) Molten Ba(OH)2?8H2O as an etchant for CR-39 detector. Radiation Measurements, 37, 205-210. doi:10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00030-1
[15] Matiullah, Dogar, A.H., Ahmad, N., Amin, M. and Kudo, K. (1999) Gamma dosimetry with CR-39 etch track detector. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (Part 1), 38, 3761-3762. doi:10.1143/JJAP.38.3761
[16] Husaini, S.N., Khan, E.U., Khattak, N.U., Qureshi, A.A., Malik, F., Qureshi, I.E., Karim, T. and Khan, H.A. (2002) The study of crystalline etch products of CR-39. Radiation Measurements, 35, 3-5. doi:10.1016/S1350-4487(01)00259-1
[17] Khan, E.U., Husaini, S.N., Malik, F., Sajid, M., Karim, S. and Qureshi, I.E. (2002) A quick method for maintaining the molarity of NaOH solution during continuous etching of CR-39. Radiation Measurements, 35, 41-45. doi:10.1016/S1350-4487(01)00260-8
[18] Malik, F., Khan, E.U., Qureshi, I.E., Husaini, S.N., Sajid, M., Karim, S. and Jamil, K. (2002) Swelling in CR-39 and its effect on bulk etch-rate. Radiation Measurements, 35, 301-305. doi:10.1016/S1350-4487(02)00053-7
[19] Khan, H.A., Lund, T., Vater, P., Brandt, R. and Tuyn, J.W.N. (1983) Some gross features of the interaction of semirelativistic 16O and 12C ions with 197Au targets. Physical Review C, 28, 1630-1634. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.28.1630
[20] D?rschel, B., Fülle, D., Hartmann, H., Hermsdorf, D., Kadner, K. and Radlach, Ch. (1997) Measurement of track parameters and etch rates in proton-irradiated CR- 39 detectors and simulation of neutron dosimeter. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 69, 267-274. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a031913
[21] Rana, M.A. (2012) Mechanisms and kinetics of nuclear track etching and annealing: Free energy analysis of damage in fission fragment tracks. Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, 672, 57-63. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2011.12.121
[22] Rana, M.A., Qureshi, I.E., Manzoor, S., Khan, E.U., Shahzad, M.I. and Sher, G. (2001) Activation energy for the annealing of nuclear tracks in SSNTDs. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, 179, 249-254. doi:10.1016/S0168-583X(01)00574-2
[23] Rana, M.A., Qureshi, I.E., Manzoor, S., Khan, E.U., Shahzad, M.I. and Khan, H.A. (2000) Thermal annealing of fission fragment radiation damage in CR-39. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, 170, 149-155. doi:10.1016/S0168-583X(00)00154-3
[24] Rana, M.A. (2007) A model for annealing of nuclear tracks in solids. Radiation Measurements, 42, 317-322. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2007.01.039
[25] Khan, E.U., Qureshi, I.E., Shahzad, M.I., Khattak, F.N. and Khan, H.A. (2001) Emission of intermediate mass fragments in the heavy ion interaction of (14.0 MeV/u) Pb + Au. Nuclear Physics A, 690, 723-730. doi:10.1016/S0375-9474(00)00697-7
[26] Shahzad, M.I., Qureshi, I.E., Manzoor, S. and Khan, H.A. (1999) Sequential fission process observed in the reaction (16.7 MeV/u) 238U + nat.Au using mica as dielectric track detector. Nuclear Physics A, 645, 92-106. doi:10.1016/S0375-9474(98)00554-5
[27] Khan, H.A., Qureshi, I.E., Jamil, K., Brandt, R. and Kraft, G. (1988) Nuclear reactions of relativistic 238U- and 139La-ions with light target atoms. Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements, 15, 403-409. doi:10.1016/1359-0189(88)90172-0
[28] Qureshi, I.E., Khan, H.A., Rashid, K., Gottschalk, P.A., Vater, P. and Brandt, R. (1988) Four-fragment exit channel in the interaction of 1050 MeV 84Kr with U studied with mica detectors. Physical Review C, 37, 393-396. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.37.393
[29] Saffarini, G., Dwaikat, N., El-Hasan, M., Sato, F., Kato, Y. and Iida, T. (2012) The effect of infrared laser on the activation energy of CR-39 polymeric detector. Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, 680, 82-85. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2012.04.003
[30] Rana, M.A. and Manzoor, S. (2008) Examining the fragmentation of 158 A GeV lead ions on copper target: Charge-changing cross sections. Radiation Measurements, 43, 1383-1389. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.05.004
[31] Cecchini, S., et al. (2008) Fragmentation cross sections of Fe26+, Si14+ and C6+ ions of 0.3 - 10 AGeV on polyethylene, CR39 and aluminum targets. Nuclear Physics A, 807, 206-213. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.03.017
[32] Rana, M.A. and Manzoor, S. (2008) Total fragmentation cross section of 158-A-GeV lead projectiles in Cu target. Chinese Physics Letters, 25, 3208-3211. doi:10.1088/0256-307X/25/9/031
[33] Sher, G., Shahzad, M.I. and Hussain, M. (2008) Fragmentation of 158A GeV Pb ions with Bi target. Radiation Measurements, 42, 1692-1695. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2007.09.006
[34] Manzoor, S., et al. (2007) Nuclear track detectors for environmental studies and radiation monitoring. Nuclear Physics B—Proceedings Supplement, 172, 92-96. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2007.07.017
[35] Balestra, S., et al. (2007) Bulk etch rate measurements and calibrations of plastic nuclear track detectors. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, 254, 254-258. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.11.056
[36] Qureshi, I.E., et al. (2005) Study of projectile fragmentation in the reaction (158 A GeV) Pb + Pb using CR-39. Radiation Measurements, 40, 437-441. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2004.11.013
[37] Manzoor, S., et al. (2001) Charge identification in CR-39 nuclear track detector using relativistic lead ion fragmentation. Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, 453, 525-529. doi:10.1016/S0168-9002(00)00470-8
[38] Sanchez, I.C., Colson, J.P. and Eby, R.K. (1973) Theory and observations of polymer crystal thickening. Journal of Applied Physics, 44, 4332-4339. doi:10.1063/1.1661961
[39] Scheidenberger, C., et al. (2004) Charge-changing interactions of ultrarelativistic Pb nuclei. Physical Review C, 70, 014902. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.70.014902
[40] Kunert, T. and Schmidt, R. (2001) Excitation and fragmentation mechanisms in ion-fullerene collisions. Physical Review Letters, 86, 5258-5261. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.5258
[41] Jurado, B., Sshmitt, C., Schmidt, K.-H., Benlliure, J., Enqvist, T., Junghans, A.R., Kelic, A. and Rejmund, F. (2004) Transient Effects in fission from new experimental signatures. Physical Review Letters, 93, 072501. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.072501
[42] Ricciardi, M.V., Ignatyuk, A.V., Keli?, A., Napolitani, P., Rejmund, F., Schmidt, K.-H. and Yordanov, O. (2004) Complex nuclear-structure phenomena revealed from the nuclide production in fragmentation reactions. Nuclear Physics A, 733, 299-318. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2004.01.069
[43] Rana, M.A., Khan, E.U., Qureshi, I.E., Shahzad, M.I., Sher, G., Manzoor, S. and Qureshi, I.E. (2007) Characteristics of antiproton tracks in CR-39. Radiation Measurements, 42, 125-129. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.12.002
[44] Rana, M.A., Khan, E.U., Qureshi, I.E., Malik, F., Shahzad, M.I., Sher, G., Manzoor, S. and Khan, H.A. (2006) Annihilation of antiprotons in light nuclei. Chinese Physics Letters, 23, 1716-1719. doi:10.1088/0256-307X/23/7/017
[45] Khan, H.A., Khan, N.A. and Peterson, R.J. (1987) Fission induced in natU, natPb, 197Au, and 165Ho by 80 and 100 MeV π+ and π?. Physical Review C, 35, 645-650. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.35.645
[46] Khan, H.A., Qureshi, I.E., Shahzad, M.I., Manzoor, S., Farooq, M.A., Sher, G., Khan, E.U. and Peterson, R.J. (1999) Preliminary results of fission induced by (1068 MeV) π? in Cu, Sn, Au and Bi using CR-39 detectors. Radiation Measurements, 31, 559-562. doi:10.1016/S1350-4487(99)00198-5
[47] Khan, H.A., Qureshi, I.E., Shahzad, M.I., Manzoor, S., De Barros, S. and Peterson, R.J. (1997) Pion-induced fission in tin and bismuth observed with makrofol detectors. Radiation Measurements, 28, 287-290. doi:10.1016/S1350-4487(97)00084-X
[48] Peterson, R.J., de Barros, S., de Souza, I., Gaspar, M.B., Khan, H.A., Manzoor, S. (1995) Mass and energy dependence of pion induced fission. Zeitschrift für Physik A, 352, 181-189.
[49] Yasin, A.B., Shahzad, M.I., Qureshi, I.E., Sher, G. and Peterson, R.J. (2006) Experimental studies and cascadeexciton model analysis of negative pion induced fission in gold and bismuth. Nuclear Physics A, 765, 390-400. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2005.11.005
[50] Khan, H.A., Khan, N.A. and Peterson, R.J. (1990) Pion induced interactions in tantalum, europium, antimony and zirconium. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, 51, 421- 424. doi:10.1016/0168-583X(90)90562-9
[51] Khan, H.A., Khan, N.A. and Peterson, R.J. (1991) Mass dependence of positive pion-induced fission. Physical Review C, 43, 250-253. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.43.250
[52] Greisen, K. (1966) End to the cosmic-ray spectrum? Physical Review Letters, 16, 748-750. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.16.748
[53] Zatsepin, G.T. and Kuz’min, V.A. (1966) Upper limit of the spectrum of cosmic rays. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters, 4, 78-80.
[54] Mashnik, S.G. (1995) User’s manual for the code CEM95.
[55] Gudima, K.K., Mashnik, S.G. and Toneev, V.D. (1983) Cascade-exciton model of nuclear reactions. Nuclear Physics A, 401, 329-361. doi:10.1016/0375-9474(83)90532-8
[56] Hicks, K.H., et al. (1985) Fission of heavy nuclei induced by energetic pions. Physical Review C, 31, 1323-1333. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.31.1323
[57] Khan, H.A. and Qureshi, A.A. (1994) Solid-state nuclear track detection—A useful geological geophysical tool. Nuclear Geophysics, 8, 1-37.
[58] Rana, M.A. (2008) Certain aspects of high level radioactive wastes—A brief note on the problem. The Nucleus, 45, 91-99.
[59] Fleischer, R.L., Price, P.B. and Walker, R.M. (1975) Nuclear tracks in solids. University of California Press, Berkeley.
[60] Khan, H.A. and Durrani, S.A. (1972) Prolonged etching factor in SSTD and its applications. Radiation Effects, 13, 257-266. doi:10.1080/00337577208231188
[61] Durrani, S.A. and Khan, H.A. (1971) Obsidian source identification by fission track analysis. Nature, 233, 242-245. doi:10.1038/233242a0
[62] King, C.Y. (1978) Radon emanation on San Andreas fault. Nature, 271, 516-519. doi:10.1038/271516a0
[63] Durrani, S.A. and Khan, H.A. (1970) Annealing of fission tracks in tektites: Corrected ages of bediasites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 9, 431-445. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(70)90010-5
[64] Khattak, N.U., Qureshi, A.A., Akram, M., Khan, M.A., Qureshi, I.E., Mehmood, K. and Khan, H.A. (2001) Unroofing history of the Sillai Patti granite gneiss, Pakistan: Constraints from zircon fission-track dating. Radiation Measurements, 34, 409-413. doi:10.1016/S1350-4487(01)00196-2
[65] Qureshi, A.A., Khattak, N.U., Sardar, M., Tufail, M., Akram, M., Iqbal, T. and Khan, H.A. (2001) Determination of uranium contents in rock samples from Kakul phosphate deposit, Abbotabad (Pakistan), using fission-track technique. Radiation Measurements, 34, 355-359. doi:10.1016/S1350-4487(01)00185-8
[66] Qureshi, A.A., Karim, T., Rizvi, S.H.N., Tahir, M., Rabbani, M., Mehmood, K. and Khan, H.A. (1995) Fission track dating of biotite mica from Antarctica. Radiation Measurements, 25, 521-522. doi:10.1016/1350-4487(95)00144-4
[67] Qureshi, A.A., Mehmood, K., Karim, T., Jamil, K. and Khan, H.A. (1995) Use of mica in fission track dating. Radiation Measurements, 25, 519-520. doi:10.1016/1350-4487(95)00143-3
[68] Khattak, N.U., Qureshi, A.A., Hussain, S.S., Akram, M., Mateen, A. and Khan, H.A. (2001). Study of the tectonic uplift history of the Sillai Patti granitic gneiss, Pakistan: Constraints from zircon fission-track dating. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 20, 1-8. doi:10.1016/S1367-9120(01)00018-9
[69] Khattak, N.U., Qureshi, A.A., Akram, M., Ullah, K., Azhar, M. and Khan, M.A. (2005) Unroofing history of the Jambil and Jawar carbonatite complexes from NW Pakistan: Constraints from fission-track dating of apatite. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 25, 643-652. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2004.07.005
[70] Durrani, S.A. (2008) Nuclear tracks today: Strengths, weaknesses, challenges. Radiation Measurements, 43, S26-S33. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.03.044
[71] Tahir, S.N.A., Jamil, K., Zaidi, J.H., Arif, M. and Ahmed, N. (2006) Activity Concentration of 137Cs in soil samples from Punjab province (Pakistan) and estimation of gammaray dose rate for external exposure. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 118, 345-351. doi:10.1093/rpd/nci351
[72] Jamil, K. and Ali, S. (2001) Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 54, 415- 422. doi:10.1016/S0265-931X(00)00175-2
[73] Jamil, K., Ali, S., Iqbal, M., Qureshi, A.A. and Khan, H.A. (1998) Measurements of radionuclides in coal samples from two provinces of Pakistan and computation of External γ ray dose rate in coal mines. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 41, 207-216. doi:10.1016/S0265-931X(97)00094-5
[74] Jamil, K., Al-Ahmady, K.K., Fazal-ar-Rehman, Safdar A., Qureshi, A.A. and Khan, H.A. (1997) Relative performance cf different types of passive dosimeters employing solid stale nuclear track detectors. Health Physics, 73, 629- 632. doi:10.1097/00004032-199710000-00006
[75] Jamil, K., Rehman, F.-U., Ali, S. and Khan, H.A. (1997) Determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny using surface barrier detector for various shapes of passive radon dosimeters. Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, 388, 267-272. doi:10.1016/S0168-9002(97)00307-0
[76] Jamil, K., Ali, S., Qureshi, I.E., Rehman, F., Khan, H.A., Manzoor, S., Waheed, A. and Cherubini, R. (1997) Experimental and simulation study of neutron dosimetry at various neutron energies. Radiation Measurements, 28, 495- 498. doi:10.1016/S1350-4487(97)00127-3
[77] Kudo, K., Khan, S. and Khan, H.A. (1991) Fast neutron spectrometry with electrochemically etched CR-39 detectors. Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements, 19, 505-506. doi:10.1016/1359-0189(91)90256-H
[78] Waheed, A., Manzoor, S., Cherubini, R., Moschini, G., Lembo, L. and Khan, H.A. (1990) A more suitable etching condition to register low energy proton tracks in CR39 for neutron dosimetry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, 47, 320-328. doi:10.1016/0168-583X(90)90765-M
[79] Khan, H.A. and Khan, N.A. (1980) Fast neutron dosimetry using a CR-39 plastic track detector. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, 178, 491-497. doi:10.1016/0029-554X(80)90829-0
[80] Malik, F., Khan, E.U., Qureshi, I.E., Husaini, S.N., Ahmad, W., Rajput, M.U. and Raza, Q. (2006) A new method for the determination of unknown neutron fluence for 14.0 MeV. Physica B, 385-386, 1318-1320. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2006.06.063
[81] Khan, E.U., Malik, F., Qureshi, I.E., Husaini, S.N., Ali, N. and Mehmood, A. (2005) Measurement of neutron fluence with CR-39 using a UV spectrophotometer. Radiation Measurements, 40, 583-586. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2005.02.016
[82] Akram, M., Khattak, N.U., Ullah, I. and Tufail, M. (2008) Fission track estimation of uranium concentrations in liquid homeopathic medicine samples. Radiation Measurements, 43, S527-S531. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.03.011
[83] Akram, M., Khattak, N.U., Qureshi, A.A., Iqbal, A., Tufail, M. and Qureshi, I.E. (2004) Fission track estimation of uranium concentrations in drinking water. Health Physics, 86, 296-302. doi:10.1097/00004032-200403000-00006
[84] Akram, M., Khattak, N.U., Qureshi, A.A., Iqbal, A., Ullah, K. and Qureshi, I.E. (2004) Neutron induced radiography in the determination of boron in drinking water. Journal of Radionuclear and Nuclear Chemistry, 261, 429-435. doi:10.1023/B:JRNC.0000034881.06566.26
[85] Husaini, S.N., Zaidi, J.H., Malik, F. and Arif, M. (2008) Application of nuclear track membrane for the reduction of pollutants in the industrial effluent. Radiation Measurements, 43, S607-S611. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.03.070
[86] Fink, D., Saad, A., Dhamodaran, S., Chandra, A., Fahrner, W.R., Hoppe, K. and Chadderton, L.T. (2008) Multiparametric electronic devices based on nuclear tracks. Radiation Measurements, 43, S546-S551. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.03.034
[87] Apel, P.Y., Blonskaya, I.V., Dmitriev, S.N., Mamonova, T.I., Orelovitch, O.L., Sartowska, B. and Yamauchi, Y. (2008) Surfactant-controlled etching of ion track nanopores and its practical applications in membrane technology. Radiation Measurements, 43, S552-S559. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.04.057
[88] Spohr, R. (2008) Real-time control of track etching and recent experiments relevant to micro and nano fabrication. Radiation Measurements, 43, S560-S570. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.03.078
[89] Karim, S., Maaz, K., Ali, G. and Ensinger, W. (2009) Diameter dependent failure current density of gold nanowires. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 42, 185403. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/42/18/185403
[90] Maaz, K., Karim, S., Mashiatullah, A., Liu, J., Hou, M.D., Sun, Y.M., Duan, J.L., Yao, H.J., Mo, D. and Chen, Y.F. (2009) Structural analysis of nickel doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by coprecipitation route. Physica B, 404, 3947-3951. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2009.07.134
[91] Karim, S., Ensinger, W., Cornelius, T.W., Khan, E.U. and Neumann, R. (2008) Tuning the characteristics of electrochemically fabricated gold nanowires. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 8, 5659-5666. doi:10.1166/jnn.2008.258
[92] Karim, S., Ensinger, W., Cornelius, T.W., Neumann, R. (2008) Investigation of size effects in the electrical resistivity of single electrochemically fabricated gold nanowires. Physica E, 40, 3173-3178. doi:10.1016/j.physe.2008.05.011
[93] Karim, S., Toimil-Molares, M.E., Balogh, A.G., Ensinger, W., Cornelius, T.W., Khan, E.U. and Neumann, R. (2006) Morphological evolution of Au nanowires controlled by Rayleigh instability. Nanotechnology, 17, 5954-5959. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/17/24/009
[94] Price, P.B. (2008) Recent applications of nuclear tracks in solids. Radiation Measurements, 43, S13-S25. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.04.002
[95] Lang, D.V. (2007) Recalling the origins of DLTS. Physica B, 401-402, 7-9. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2007.08.102
[96] Fleischer, R.L. (2005) The distribution of boron in AlRu: Effect on ductility and toughness. Acta Materialia, 9, 2623-2627. doi:10.1016/j.actamat.2005.02.021
[97] Price, P.B. (2008) Overview of the conference. Radiation Measurements, 43, S662-S664. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2008.03.045
[98] Spohr, R. (2005) Status of ion track technology—Prospects of single tracks. Radiation Measurements, 40, 191- 202. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2005.03.008
[99] Hermsdorf, D., Hunger, M., Starke, S. and Weickert, F. (2007) Measurement of bulk etch rates for poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate (PADC) and cellulose nitrate in a broad range of concentration and temperature of NaOH etching solution. Radiation Measurements, 42, 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.06.009
[100] D?rschel, B., Fülle, D., Hartmann, H., Hermsdorf, D., Kadner, K. and Radlach, Ch. (1997) Dependence of the etch rate ratio on the energy loss in proton irradiated CR-39 detectors and recalculation of etch pit parameters. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 71, 99-106. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a032046
[101] Smilgys, B., Guedes, S., Hadler, J.C., Coelho, P.R.P., Alencar, I., Soares, C.J. and Salim, L.A. (2011) Manufacturing of boron thin films for the measurement of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction in BNCT. Proceedings of Science, XXXIV BWNP, Article 35.
[102] Rana, M.A. (2008) How to achieve precision and reliability in experiments using nuclear track detection technique? Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, 592, 354-360. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2008.04.025
[103] Dixit, S.K., Zhou, X.J., Schrimpf, R.D., Fleetwood, D.M., Pantelides, S.T., Choi, R., Bersuker, G. and Feldman, L.C. (2007) Radiation induced charge trapping in HfO-based MOSFETs. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 54, 1883- 1890. doi:10.1109/TNS.2007.911423
[104] Hjalmarson, H.P., Vogl, P., Wolford, D.J. and Dow, J.D. (1980) Theory of substitutional deep traps in covalent. Physical Review Letters, 44, 810-813. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.44.810
[105] Fleischer, R.L. (2004) Fission tracks in solids—Production mechanisms and natural origins. Journal of Material Science, 39, 3901-3911. doi:10.1023/B:JMSC.0000031471.17343.32
[106] Ewing, R.C. (2001) The design and evaluation of nuclear-waste forms: Clues from mineralogy. Canadian Mineralogist, 39, 697-715. doi:10.2113/gscanmin.39.3.697
[107] Ewing, R.C. (2006) The nuclear fuel cycle: A role for mineralogy and geochemistry. Elements, 2, 331-334. doi:10.2113/gselements.2.6.331
[108] Ewing, R.C. (2007) Displaced by radiation. Nature, 445, 161-162. doi:10.1038/445161a
[109] Butler, D. (2004) Nuclear power’s new dawn. Nature, 429, 238-240. doi:10.1038/429238a
[110] Gemmell, D.S. (1974) Channeling and related effects in the motion of charged particles through crystals. Review of Modern Physics, 46, 129-227. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.46.129
[111] Breese, M.B.H., King, P.J.C., Smulders, P.J.M. and Grime, G.W. (1995) Dechanneling of MeV protons by 60? dislocations. Physical Review B, 51, 2742-2750. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.51.2742
[112] Rana, M.A. (2008) On the long standing question of nuclear track etch induction time: Surface-cap model. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B, 266, 271-276. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2007.10.036
[113] Chua, S. J. (2003) A study of the material loss and other processes involved during annealing of GaN at growth temperatures. Chemical Physics Letters, 380, 105-110. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2003.09.019
[114] Rana, M.A., Osipowicz, T., Choi, H.W., Breese, M.B.H., Watt, F. and Chua, S.J. (2003) Stoichiometric and structural alterations in GaN thin films during annealling. Applied Physics A, 77, 103-108. doi:10.1007/s00339-003-2102-z
[115] Ccecchini, S., Giacomelli, G., Giorgini, M., Mandrioli, G., Patrizii, L., Popa, V., Serra, P., Sirri, G. and Spurio, M. (2002) Fragmentation cross sections of 158 A GeV Pb ions in various targets measured with CR39 nuclear track detectors. Nuclear Physics A, 707, 513-524. doi:10.1016/S0375-9474(02)00962-4
[116] Zhou, D., Semones, E., O’Sullivan, D., Zapp, N., Weyland, M., Reitz, G., Berger, T. and Benton, E.R. (2010) Radiation measured for MATROSHKA-1 experiment with passive dosimeters. Acta Astronautica, 66, 301-308. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.06.014
[117] Yu, Batusov, A., Bradnova, V., Hashemi-Nezhad, S.R., Tereshchenko, V.V., Tereshchenko, S.V. (2009) Investigation of fast neutron spectra in the uranium assembly of the experimental setup “energy plus transmutation” in the JINR Nuclotron proton beam at an energy of 1.5 GeV. Radiation Measurements, 44, 917-921. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.10.006

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.