Quantum Tic-Tac-Toe: A Genuine Probabilistic Approach


We propose a quantum version of Tic-Tac-Toe which accurately reflects the inherent probabilistic nature of the measurement principle in quantum mechanics. We then formulate a quantum strategy which allows a quantum player to consistently win over a classical player, with a certain probability. This result can be seen as another proof of the superior computational power of a quantum system with respect to a classical one. Our investigation also reveals that the non-determinism and complexity introduced by the principles of quantum mechanics into even the most simple games make brute-force strategies considerably more difficult to implement. Consequently, games in which machines have gained the upper hand over humans may be made fair again by upgrading them to a quantum level.

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M. Nagy and N. Nagy, "Quantum Tic-Tac-Toe: A Genuine Probabilistic Approach," Applied Mathematics, Vol. 3 No. 11A, 2012, pp. 1779-1786. doi: 10.4236/am.2012.331243.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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