Developing a Social Business Model for Zero Waste Management Systems: A Case Study Analysis


The global gross domestic product (GDP) has increased by 40% during 1960-2000; poverty and inequity have also increased over the same time [1]. Many social scientists and economists have indicted the existing monetary-based corporate social structures with their insignificant contribution to the problem solving and social development processes. Waste is one of the major problems in every city around the globe. This study explores policy instruments in existing profit maximizing business systems and proposes an alternative business approach for the zero waste management systems. The paper proposes a conceptualized social business model for waste management systems based on a case study of two different organizations working in waste management systems in low and high consuming cities. “Waste Concern”, on one hand, is a social business enterprise, promoting waste recycling activities through the community-based decentralized composting technology using public-private community partnerships model in a low consuming city i.e. Dhaka. “Finding Workable Solutions”, on the other hand, is a non-profit organization that rehabilitates and empowers disabled peoples in high consuming city, i. e. Adelaide by collecting and transforming sellable household waste. This paper argues that waste management social business would be an opportunity for the corporate world to implement the strategy of extended producer responsibility in more successful way. Under this business model, producers can contribute more significantly in the social development process, promote value creation, ensure product stewardship and equity within the society. In addition, the conceptualized waste management social business model will endorse closed-loop resource flow in the society and will maximize resource utilization through recycling, reusing and re-gifting in the circular society.

Share and Cite:

A. Zaman, "Developing a Social Business Model for Zero Waste Management Systems: A Case Study Analysis," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 11, 2012, pp. 1458-1469. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.311163.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Zeit Studios, “ZEITGEIST: Moving Forward,” Official Release, 2011.
[2] D. Evans, “Consuming Conventions: Sustainable Con- sumption, Ecological Citizenship and the Worlds of Worth,” Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2011, pp. 109-115. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.02.002
[3] J. Rice, “Ecological Unequal Exchange: Consumption, Equity, and Unsustainable Structural Relationships within the Global Economy,” International Journal of Com- parative Sociology, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2007, pp. 43-72. doi:10.1177/0020715207072159
[4] A. U. Zaman and S. Lehmann, “Challenges and Opportu- nities in Transforming a City into a ‘Zero Waste City’,” Challenges, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2011, pp. 73-93. doi:10.3390/challe2040073
[5] M. Lampe and G. M. Gazda, “Green Marketing in Europe and the United States: An Evolving Business and Society Interface,” International Business Review, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1995, pp. 295-312. doi:10.1016/0969-5931(95)00011-N
[6] S. O. Idowu and B. A. Towler, “A Comparative Study of the Contents of Corporate Social Responsibility Reports of UK Companies,” Management of Environmental Qual- ity: An International Journal, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2004, pp. 420-437. doi:10.1108/14777830410540153
[7] J. Redmond, E. Walker and C. Wang, “Issues for Small Businesses with Waste Management,” Journal of Envi- ronmental Management, Vol. 88, No. 2, 2008, pp. 275- 285. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.02.006
[8] J. G. Longenecker, “Small Business Management: An Entrepreneurial Emphasis,” Thomson/South-Western, Mason, 2006.
[9] B. Christopher, “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small- Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2005, pp. 497-511. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.10.002
[10] L. T. Raynolds, “Fair Trade,” International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 8-13.
[11] T. Peter Leigh, “A Fair Trade Approach to Community Forest Certification? A Framework for Discussion,” Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2005, pp. 433- 447. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2005.08.002
[12] W. Nimon and J. Beghin, “Are Eco-Labels Valuable? Evidence from the Apparel Industry,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 81, No. 4, 1999, pp. 801- 811. doi:10.2307/1244325
[13] S. F. Hamilton and D. Zilberman, “Green Markets, Eco-Certification, and Equilibrium Fraud,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2006, pp. 627-644. doi:10.1016/j.jeem.2006.05.002
[14] H. Nilsson, B. Tun?er and ?. Thidell, “The Use of Eco-Labeling Like Initiatives on Food Products to Promote Quality Assurance—Is There Enough Credibility?” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2004. pp. 517-526. doi:10.1016/S0959-6526(03)00114-8
[15] A. U. Zaman, M. Sofia and N. Veranika, “Green Marketing or Green Wash? A Comparative Study of Consumers’ Behavior on Selected Eco and Fair Trade Labeling in Sweden,” Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2010, pp. 104-111.
[16] G. C. Nelson and R. D. Robertson, “Green Gold or Green Wash: Environmental Consequences of Biofuels in the Developing World,” Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2008, pp. 517-529.
[17] V. Chettiyapan, “Business and Employment Opportunities in Waste Management and Recycling in Asia,” Waste Management, Vol. 31, No. 6, 2011, pp. 1083-1084.
[18] GIA, “Waste-to-energy market US$28.8 billion by 2015,” 2010.
[19] M. Yunus and K. Weber, “Creating a World without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism,” Public Affairs, New York, 2007.
[20] C. Henry, “Business Model Innovation: Opportunities and Barriers,” Long Range Planning, Vol. 43, No. 2-3, 2010, pp. 354-363. doi:10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.010
[21] M. Rita Gunther, “Business Models: A Discovery Driven Approach,” Long Range Planning, Vol. 43, No. 2-3, 2010, pp. 247-261. doi:10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.005
[22] NOS, “Objectives of Business,” 2011.
[23] T. Volery and M. Schaper, “Entrepreneurship and small business,” John Wiley & Sons Australiam Milton, 2007.
[24] W. D. Bygrave, “The Portable MBA in Entrepreneurship,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997.
[25] C. Seelos and J. Mair, “Social Entrepreneurship: Creating New Business Models to Serve the Poor,” Business Horizons, Vol. 48, No. 3, 2005, pp. 241-246. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2004.11.006
[26] S. Rodney, “Building Social Business: The New Kind of Capitalism that Serves Humanity’s Most Pressing Needs,” Stanford University, Center for Social Innovation, Stanford, 2010, p. 18.
[27] M. Yunus, B. Moingeon and L. Lehmann-Ortega, “Building Social Business Models: Lessons from the Grameen Experience,” Long Range Planning, Vol. 43, No. 2-3, 2010, pp. 308-325. doi:10.1016/j.lrp.2009.12.005
[28] C. L. Grameen, “The 7 Principles of Social Business,” 2011.
[29] W. McDonough and M. Braungart, “Design for the Tripple Top Line: New Tools for Sustainable Commerce,” 2002.
[30] WCED, “Our Common Future,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987.
[31] K. Peattie and S. Peattie, “Social Marketing: A Pathway to Consumption Reduction?” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, No. 2, 2009, pp. 260-268. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.01.033
[32] R. A. Truscott, J. L. Bartlett and S. A. Tywoniak, “The Reputation of the Corporate Social Responsibility Industry in Australia,” Australasian Marketing Journal, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2009, pp. 84-91. doi:10.1016/j.ausmj.2009.05.001
[33] C.-H. Lin, H.-L. Yang and D.-Y. Liou, “The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Financial Performance: Evidence from Business in Taiwan,” Technology in Society, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2009, pp. 56-63. doi:10.1016/j.techsoc.2008.10.004
[34] W. Visser, “The Age of Responsibility: CSR 2.0 and the New DNA of Business,” Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2011, pp. 7-22.
[35] TVP, “Aims and Proposals of the Venus Project,” 2011.
[36] A. Fleming, “Adbusters Sparks Wall Street Protest: Vancouver-Based Activists behind Street Actions in the US,” 2011.
[37] R. Lowenstein, “Occupy Wall Street: It’s Not a Hippie Thing,” 2011.
[38] H. Chesbrough and R. S. Rosenbloom, “The Role of the Business Model in Capturing Value from Innovation: Evidence from Xerox Corporation’s Technology Spin-Off Companies,” Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2002, pp. 529-555. doi:10.1093/icc/11.3.529
[39] S. L. Wartick and P. L. Cochran, “The Evolution of the Corporate Social Performance Model,” The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1985, pp. 758-769. doi:10.2307/258044
[40] N. G. Mankiw, “Small Menu Costs and Large Business Cycles: A Macroeconomic Model of Monopoly,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 100, No. 2, 1985, pp. 529-537. doi:10.2307/1885395
[41] A. A. Costa and L. V. Tavares, “Social E-Business and the Satellite Network Model: Innovative Concepts to Improve Collaboration in Construction,” Automation in Construction, Vol. 22, 2012, pp. 387-397.
[42] A. D. Stajkovic and F. Luthans, “Business Ethics across Cultures: A Social Cognitive Model,” Journal of World Business, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1997, pp. 17-34. doi:10.1016/S1090-9516(97)90023-7
[43] G. Shrimali, et al., “Improved Stoves in India: A Study of Sustainable Business Models,” Energy Policy, Vol. 39, No. 12, 2011, pp. 7543-7556. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.07.031
[44] L. Darby and H. Jenkins, “Applying Sustainability Indicators to the Social Enterprise Business Model: The Development and Application of an Indicator Set for Newport Wastesavers, Wales,” International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 33, No. 5-6, 2006, pp. 411-431. doi:10.1108/03068290610660689
[45] ASB, “Creative Partnerships: The Future for Corporate Social Responsibility?” 2010.
[46] OEH, “Product Stewardship and Extended Producer Responsibility,” 2011.
[47] Waste Concern, “Waste Dhaka,” 2007.
[48] ZWSA, “Free E-Waste Drop off Depot in Adelaide,” 2011.!/photo.php?fbid=248408835223805&set=a.162491863815503.42194.118692401528783&type=1&theater

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.