Characterization of Sintered Ceramic Tiles Produced from Steel Slag


Ceramic tiles were processed in this present work using clay mineral and steel slag. Steel slag in the range of 0-100wt % was added to kaolinite clay. The blended samples were hydraulic pressed into rectangular moulds, oven dried and sintered to1200℃. Linear shrinkage, apparent porosity, water absorption, bulk density, and modulus of rupture of sintered specimens were examined. Phases present in the sintered products were identified using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), while the microstructural examination was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The elements present in the sintered products were identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). Phases like quartz, wol-lastonite, anorthite and enstatite were identified in the sintered products. The SEM revealed crystals embedded in the glassy matrix. EDX studies detected Aluminum (Al), Silicon (Si), Magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca) as the major metal ions. Results obtained showed that samples containing 20-60wt% steel slag have very good usable ceramic tile properties.

Share and Cite:

B. Chukwudi, P. Ademusuru and B. Okorie, "Characterization of Sintered Ceramic Tiles Produced from Steel Slag," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 11 No. 9, 2012, pp. 863-868. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.119080.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] I. A. Al-Negheimish, F. H. Al-Sugairand and R. Z. Al- Zaid, “Utilization of Local Steelmaking Slag in Concrete,” Journal of King Saud University, Engineering Science, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1997, pp. 39-55.
[2] Indian Bureau of Mines, “Slag—Iron and Steel,” in: Indian Minerals Yearbook, IBM Press, Nagpur, 2011, 6 p.
[3] M. Romero, A. Andres, R. Alonso, J. Virgin and J. M. Rincon, “Sintering Behaviour of Ceramic Bodies from Contaminated Marine Sediments,” Ceramics International, Vol. 34, No. 8, 2008, pp. 1917-1924. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2007.07.002
[4] I. Ozdemir and S. Yilmaz, “Processing of Unglazed Ceramic Tiles from Blast Furnace Slag,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 183, No. 1, 2007, pp. 13-17. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.09.002
[5] EN (European Nations) 14411, “Ceramic Tiles, Definitions, Classification, Characteristics and Making,” 2004.
[6] Y. Lei, Q. X. Yan, S. P. Liu and J. Z. Yuan, “Papermaking of Mineral Fiber Composite,” Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 2010, pp. 215-220.
[7] M. S. Hernandez, M. Romero and J. M. Rincon, “Nucleation and Crystal Growth of Glasses Produced by a Generic Plasma Arc-Process,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol. 26, No. 9, 2005, pp. 1-10.
[8] Mineral Data Publishing, Enstatite, Version 1.2, 2001.
[9] Mineral Data Publishing, Anorthite, Version 1.2, 2001.
[10] ESMA, the European Specialty Minerals Association, (IMA-Europe), “Wollastonite,” 2010, pp. 1-2.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.