Metabolic syndrome and its individual components among people with type 2 diabetes: Prevalence, gender differences and its association with ischemic heart disease


Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is common among people with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess the proportion of MS and its individual components among type 2 diabetic adults, to stratify these by gender and to determine their association with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Method: A cross-sectional multicentre study was conducted in public and private sector clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. A pretested structured questionnaire and medical records were used to collect information from 889 people with type 2 diabetes after informed consent. Chi-square test and odds ratios with 95% CI were used to assess the association of MS, its components and IHD. Adjusted odds ratios were used to evaluate the differences of MS and its components by gender. Results: In all, 70% of the participants had MS. The likelihood of having IHD among those with MS was higher (OR = 3.21; 95%CI = 2.22 - 4.65). Of the individual MS components, obesity conferred the strongest association with IHD (OR = 2.57; 95%CI = 1.91 - 3.43). Multivariate analysis showed an increased proportion of MS among women (AOR = 1.63; 95%CI = 1.18 - 2.24). Of the individual MS components, women had a higher prevalence of obesity (AOR = 4.70; 95%CI = 3.30 - 6.70). Conclusion: A very high burden of MS among type 2 diabetics has been identified in this study. Dedicated interventions are needed to prevent/delay the onset of MS and the associated morbidity and mortality.

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Khan Khuwaja, A. , Nawaz Ali, F. , Naqvi, I. , Bux, R. , Jabbar, A. and Hassan Dhanani, R. (2012) Metabolic syndrome and its individual components among people with type 2 diabetes: Prevalence, gender differences and its association with ischemic heart disease. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 2, 332-337. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2012.23052.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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