Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation and Treatment


Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 90% of all oral cancers. It may affect any anatomical site in the mouth, but most commonly the tongue and the floor of the mouth. It usually arises from a pre-existing potentially malignant lesion, and occasionally de novo; but in either case from within a field of precancerized epithelium. The use of tobacco and betel quid, heavy drinking of alcoholic beverages and a diet low in fresh fruits and vegetables are well known risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Important risk factors related to the carcinoma itself that are associated with a poor prognosis include large size of the tumour at the time of diagnosis, the presence of metastases in regional lymphnodes, and a deep invasive front of the tumour. Squamous cell carcinoma is managed by surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy singularly or in combination; but regardless of the treatment modality, the five-year survival rate is poor at about 50%. This can be attributed to the fact that about two-thirds of persons with oral squamous cell carcinoma already have a large lesion at the time of diagnosis.

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L. Feller and J. Lemmer, "Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation and Treatment," Journal of Cancer Therapy, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2012, pp. 263-268. doi: 10.4236/jct.2012.34037.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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