Enhancement of Characteristics of Antenna Arrays Employing S-Shaped Resonators


This paper illustrates a simple kind of tri-band printed G-shaped monopole antenna for Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. The proposed antenna is used to achieve three operating frequencies, 2.45 GHz, 5.2 GHz and 8.2 GHz for wireless communications. To improve the isolation between the two radiating elements, we use left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators to get negative refractive index at the three operating frequencies. When one layer of S-shaped resonators is employed, the antenna correlation, the diversity gain and the bandwidth are also enhanced. The simulated results are presented and evaluated with and without left-handed materials.

Share and Cite:

B. Aouadi and J. Tahar, "Enhancement of Characteristics of Antenna Arrays Employing S-Shaped Resonators," Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 4 No. 8, 2012, pp. 326-332. doi: 10.4236/jemaa.2012.48045.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] I. E. Telatar, “Capacity of Multi-Antenna Gaussian Channels,” European Transactions on Telecommunications, Vol. 10, No. 6, 1999, pp. 585-595.
[2] G. Foschini and M. Gans, “On Limits of Wireless Communications in a Fading Environment When Using Multiple Antennas,” Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1998, pp. 311335. doi:10.1023/A:1008889222784
[3] D. S. Shiu, G. J. Foschini, M. J. Gan and J. M. Kahn, “Fading Correlation and Its Effect on the Capacity of Multielement Antenna Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 502-513. doi:10.1109/26.837052
[4] F. Yang and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Microstrip Antennas Integrated with Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) Structures: A Low Mutual Coupling Design for Array Applications,” IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory Techniques, Vol. 51, No. 10, 2003, pp. 2936-2946.
[5] S. Ow, “Impact of Mutual Coupling on Compact MIMO Systems,” M.S. Thesis, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, 2005.
[6] K. L. Wong, C. H. Hua, B. Chen and S. Yang, “ThreeAntenna MIMO System for WLAN Operation in a PDA Phone,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 48, No. 7, 2006, pp. 1238-1242. doi:10.1002/mop.21665
[7] C. Y. Chiu, C. H. Cheng, R. D. Murch and C. R. Rowell, “Reduction of Mutual Coupling between Closely-Packed Antenna Elements,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1732-1738. doi:10.1109/TAP.2007.898618
[8] M. Karaboikis, C. Soras, G. Tsachtsiris and V. Makios, “Compact Dual-Printed Inverted-F Antenna Diversity Systems for Portable Wireless Devices,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2004, pp. 9-14. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2004.825106
[9] S. Dossche, S. Blanch and J. Romeu, “Three Different Ways to Decorrelate Two Closely Spaced Monopoles for MIMO Applications,” IEEE/ACES International Conference on Wireless Communications and Applied Computational Electromagnetics, Honolulu, 3-7 April 2005, pp. 849-852. doi:10.1109/WCACEM.2005.1469717
[10] L. Li, B. Li, H. X. Liu and C. H. Liang, “Locally Resonant Cavity Cell Model for Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2006, pp. 90-100. doi:10.1109/TAP.2005.861532
[11] M. M. Bait-Suwailam, M. S. Boybay and O. M. Ramahi, “Electromagnetic Coupling Reduction in High-Profile Monopole Antennas Using Single-Negative Magnetic Materials for MIMO Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 58, No. 9, 2010, pp. 2894-2902. doi:10.1109/TAP.2010.2052560
[12] H. R. Khaleel, H. M. Al-Rizzo, D. G. Rucker, Y. A. Rahmatallah and S. Mohan, “Mutual Coupling Reduction of Dual-Band Printed Monopoles Using MNG Metamaterial,” IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, Spokane, 3-8 July 2011, pp. 2219-2222.
[13] J. B. Pendry, “Low-Frequency Plasmons in Thin-Wire Structures,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 10, No. 22, 1998, pp. 4785-4809. doi:10.1088/0953-8984/10/22/007
[14] J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 47, No. 11, 1999, pp. 20752083. doi:10.1109/22.798002
[15] Y. L. Kuo and K. L. Wong, “Printed Double-T Monopole Antenna for 2.4/5.2 GHz Dual-Band WLAN Operations,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 9, 2003, pp. 2084-2087.
[16] C. Y. Pan, C. H. Huang and T. S. Homg, “A Novel Printed G-Shaped Monopole Antenna for Dual-Band WLAN Applications,” IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, Monterey, 20-25 June 2004, pp. 3099-3102.
[17] Ansoft HFSS. http://www.ansoft.com
[18] V. G. Veselago, “The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ε and μ,” Soviet Physics Uspekhi, Vol. 10, No. 14, 1968, pp. 509-514.
[19] R. A. Shelby, et al., “Experimental Verification of a Negative Index of Refraction,” Science, Vol. 292, No. 5514, 2001, pp. 77-79. doi:10.1126/science.1058847
[20] A. Houck, et al., “Experimental Observations of a LeftHanded Material That Obeys Snell’s Law,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 90, No. 13, 2003, pp. 7401-7404. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.137401
[21] S. L. Prosvirnin and S. Zouhdi, “Multi-Layered Arrays of Conducting Strips: Switchable Photonic Bandgap Structures,” International Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2001, pp. 260-265. doi:10.1078/1434-8411-00039
[22] R. Marqués, F. Martín and M. Sorolla, “Metamaterials with Negative Parameters: Theory, Design and Microwave Applications,” Wiley Interscience, New York, 2008, pp. 43-118.
[23] Rosengren and P.-S. Kildal, “Radiation Efficiency, Correlation, Diversity Gain and Capacity of a Six Monopole Antenna Array for a MIMO System: Theory, Simulation and Measurement in Reverberation Chamber,” IEEE Microwave, Optics and Antennas, Vol. 152, No. 1, 2005, pp. 7-16.
[24] T. S. P. See, A. M. L. Swee and Z. N. Chen, “Correlation Analysis of UWB MIMO Antenna System Congurations,” Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, Prague, 22-25 June 2008, pp. 85-88..
[25] S. Blanch, J. Romeu and I. Corbella, “Exact Representation of Antenna System Diversity Performance from Input Parameter Description,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 39. No. 9, 2003, pp. 705-707.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.