Cellulose Microfibril from Banana Peels as a Nanoreinforcing Fillers for Zein Films


Cellulose microfibril (CMF) was the extraction with acid mixture from peel of Musa sapientum Linn type of banana (Kluai Nam Wa). The fibrous-shape of CMF interconnected weblike structure with the average diameter 26 nm were observed by TEM. In order to prepare zein/CMF nanocomposite films, 16% wt zein solution was prepared by dissolved in 80% ethanol aqueous solution which contain glycerol 20% w/w. The suspension of CMF and zein solution was mixed with 0% - 5% weight fractions of solid CMF in zein matrix. The morphology of the zein films is more roughness by increased amount of cellulose microfibrils. It was found that as CMF content increase from 0 to 5% wt results in increasing tensile strength and Young’s modulus of zein nanocomposite films. The highest strength obtains at 4% wt CMF.

Share and Cite:

M. Phiriyawirut and P. Maniaw, "Cellulose Microfibril from Banana Peels as a Nanoreinforcing Fillers for Zein Films," Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 56-62. doi: 10.4236/ojpchem.2012.22007.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Y. Li, Y.-W. Mai and L. Ye, “Sisal Fibre and Its Composites: A Review of Recent Developments,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 60, No. 11, 2000, pp. 2037-2055.
[2] J. Prachayawarakorn, P. Sangnitidej and P. Boonpasith, “Properties of Thermoplastic Rice Starch Composites Reinforced by Cotton Fiber or Low-Density Polyethylene,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 81, No. 2, 2010, pp. 425-433.
[3] H. Ismail, S. Shuhelmy and M. R. Edyham, “The Effects of a Silane Coupling Agent on Curing Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo Fibre Filled Natural Rubber Composites,” European Polymer Journal, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2002, pp. 39-47.
[4] N. Soykeabkaew, P. Supaphol and R. Rujiravanit, “Preparation and Characterization of Jute- and Flax-Reinforced Starch-Based Composite Foams,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2004, pp. 53-63.
[5] T. Nishino, K. Hirao, M. Kotera, K. Nakamae and H. Inagaki, “Kenaf Reinforced Biodegradable Composite,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 63, No. 9, 2003, pp. 1281-1286.
[6] M. Phiriyawirut, P. Saenpong, S. Chalermboon, R. Sooksakoolrut, N. Pochanajit, L. Vuttikit, A. Thongchai and P. Supaphol, “Isotactic Poly(Propylene)/Wood Sawdust Com- posite: Effects of Natural Weathering, Water Immersion, and Gamma-Ray Irradiation on Mechanical Properties,” Macromolecular Symposia, Vol. 264, No. 1, 2008, pp. 59-66.
[7] M. A. S. Azizi Samir, F. Alloin and A. Dufresne, “Review of Recent Research into Cellulosic Whiskers, Their Properties and Their Application in Nanocomposite Field,” Biomacromolecules, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2005, pp. 612-626.
[8] A. Turbak, F. Snyder and K. Sandberg, “Suspensions Containing Microfibrillated Cellulose,” US Patent No. 4378381, 1983.
[9] E. Dinand, H. Chanzy and M. R. Vignon, “Suspension of Cellulose Microfibrils from Sugar Beet Pulp,” Food Hydrocolloids, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1999, pp. 275-283.
[10] A. Dufresne and M. Vignon, “Improvement of Starch Film Performances Using Cellulose Microfibrils,” Macromolecules, Vol. 31, No. 8, 1998, pp. 2693-2696.
[11] T. Imai, J. L. Putaux and J. Sugiyama, “Geometric Phase Analysis of Lattice Images from Algal Cellulose Microfibrils,” Polymer, Vol. 44, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1871-1879.
[12] M. E. Melainine, A. Dufresne, D. Dupeyre, M. Mahrouz, R. Vuong and M. Vignon, “Structure and Morphology of Cladobes and Spines of Opuntia Ficus-Indica. Cellulose Extraction and Characterization,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2003, pp. 77-83.
[13] R. Zuluaga, J. L. Putaux, A. Restrepo, I. Mondragon and P. Ganan, “Cellulose Microfibrils from Banana Farming Residues: Isolation and Characterization,” Cellulose, Vol. 14, No. 6, 2007, pp. 585-592.
[14] M. Phiriyawirut, N. Chotirat, S. Phromsiri and I. Lohapaisarn, “Preparation and Properties of Natural Rubber- Cellulose Microfibril Nanocomposite Films,” Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 93-94, 2010, pp. 328-331.
[15] M. Neus Anglès and A. Dufresne, “Plasticized Starch/ Tunicin Whiskers Nanocomposites: 1. Structural Analysis,” Macromolecules, Vol. 33, No. 22, 2000, pp. 8344-8353.
[16] J. Sriupayo, P. Supaphol, J. Blackwell and R. Rujiravanit, “Preparation and Characterization of α-Chitin Whisker- Reinforced Chitosan Nanocomposite Films with or without Heat Treatment,” Carbohydrate Polymer, Vol. 62, No. 2, 2005, pp. 130-136.
[17] L. Chazeau, J. Y. Cavaille, G. Canova, R. Dendievel and B. Boutherin, “Viscoelastic Properties of Plasticized PVC Reinforced with Cellulose Whiskers,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 71, No. 11, 1999, pp. 1797-1808.
[18] J. K. Sears and J. R. Darby, “Mechanism of Plasticizer Action,” In: J. K. Sears and J. R. Darby, Eds., The Technology of Plasticizers, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1982, pp. 35-77.
[19] R. Paramawati, T. Yoshino and S. Isobe, “Effect of Degradable Plasticizer on Tensile and Barrier Properties of Single Plasticized-Zein Film,” Journal of Engineering Pertanian, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2003, pp. 49-57.
[20] D. Gioia, L. Guilbert and S. Guilbert, “Corn Protein-Based Thermoplastic Resins: Effect of Some Polar and Amphiphilic Plasticizers,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 47, No. 3, 1999, pp. 1254-1261.
[21] E. L. Hult, T. Iversen and J. Sugiyama, “Characterization of the Supermolecular Structure of Cellulose in Wood Pulp Fibres,” Cellulose, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2003, pp. 103-110.
[22] J. Lu, T. Wang and L. T. Drzal, “Preparation and Properties of Microfibrillated Cellulose Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Materials,” Composites: Part A, Vol. 39, No. 5, 2008, pp. 768-746.
[23] N. Parris and D. R. Coffin, “Composition Factors Affecting the Water Vapor Permeability and Tensile Properties of Hydrophilic Zein Films,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 45, No. 5, 1997, pp. 1596-1599.
[24] J. X. Sun, X. F. Sun, H. Zhao, R. C. Sun, “Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose from Sugarcane Bagasse,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 84, No. 2, 2004, pp. 331-339.
[25] F. X. Santosa and G. W. Padua, “Thermal Behavior of Zein Sheet Plasticized with Oleic Acid,” Cereal Chemistry, Vol. 77, No. 4, 2000, pp. 459-462.
[26] B. Ghanbarzadeh, A. R. Oromiehie, M. Musavi, Z. E. D-Jomeh, E. R. Rad and J. Milani, “Effect of Plasticizing Sugars on Rheological and Thermal Properties of Zein Resins and Mechanical Properties of Zein Films,” Food Research International, Vol. 39, No. 8, 2006, pp. 882-890.
[27] J. Magoshi, S. Nakamura and K. I. Murakamiki, “Structure and Physical Properties of Seed Proteins, Glass Transition and Crystallization of Zein Protein from Corn,” Jour- nal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 45, No. 11, 1992, pp. 2043-2048.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.