Confucius Institute’s Role in Chinese Language Development in Indonesia: A Site Study at State University of Malang


China and Indonesia signed a joint declaration on strategic relations, which aims to strengthen bilateral educational cooperation, actively carry out the programs on training exchanges and promote language teaching of both countries. One of the ways is by collaborating to teach Chinese language in Indonesia through the Confucius Institute. State University of Malang is one of the universities that collaborates with the Confucius Institute. The role of the Confucius Institute in the development of learning Chinese language at the State University of Malang is to help manage finances in a transparent manner, the process of recruiting human resources or teachers, learning materials, and being actively involved in all activities carried out at the Chinese Language Center of the State University of Malang. The study presents a detailed review of the development of Confucius Institutes over the past decade. The difficulties faced in the process as well as the solutions are included. The role of Confucius Institutes in the process of Chinese language development in Indonesia is highlighted.

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Peng, Q. (2024) Confucius Institute’s Role in Chinese Language Development in Indonesia: A Site Study at State University of Malang. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 12, 31-46. doi: 10.4236/jss.2024.122003.

1. Introduction

As China’s economy continues to open up, the official dissemination of Chinese language and culture overseas has been pursued since the founding of CI in 2004 (Theo & Leung, 2018) . The establishment of non-profit educational institutions abroad aims to teach Mandarin and spread Chinese culture to the world (Liu, 2019) , promoting cultural exchanges and relations between Chinese people and foreign countries, and pushing the development of diverse human civilization and colored. The CI Development Plan (2012-2020) (Ministry of Education of China, 2013) clearly indicates that CI’s mission is to accelerate the development of Mandarin throughout the world. The establishment of CI was based on the experiences of foreign institutions in promoting languages in the world. For example, the British Council has invested a large amount of funds to promote English throughout the world. In carrying out its activities, the CI Unit is not a completely independent institution like other language institutes, but must first collaborate with universities in countries that want to work together (Host Country University) with approval and management from the Confucius Institute Headquarter (Hanban) which has now changed the name and became the Center for Language Education and Cooperation (CLEC) and the Chinese International Education Foundation (CIEF) in Beijing (Ferdiansyah, 2019) .

In recent years, China and Indonesia signed a joint declaration on strategic relations, which aims to strengthen bilateral educational cooperation, actively carry out training exchanges and promote language teaching from the other side. With the rapid and stable development of China’s economy, the relationship between the two sides has become even closer, as a result, more and more Indonesian universities and educational institutions have expressed their hope of co-establishing Confucius Institute (CI) with Chinese partner institutions. On the 27th of April 2019, 23 Memorandums of Understanding (MoU) were signed between a number of Indonesian and Chinese business people at the Belt Road Initiative (BRI) II Summit (Summit) in Beijing (Sugianto, 2020) . China is the largest exporter of manufactured goods in Indonesia. Almost all manufactured goods sold on the Indonesian market are imported products from China. It can be seen that Indonesia is clearly a potential economic cooperation partner for China (Yudilla, 2019) .

The Indonesian Ministry of Education agreed to set up a CI at the Jakarta Chinese Language Teaching Center to meet the demands of learning Chinese in Indonesia. In Indonesia, CI is named the Mandarin Language Center and is a place for Indonesian students and people to learn Mandarin and get to know Chinese culture. In November 2010, the Mandarin Language Center was inaugurated at Al Azhar University, Jakarta, then at Maranatha Christian University, Bandung, Hasanuddin Makassar University, Malang State University, Surabaya University, Tanjungpura Pontianak University, and Udayana University. Every year, no less than 20,000 students study at various PBMs in Indonesia (Jalal, 2021) .

The academic debate on CI has generally centered on the concept of soft power, that is generally divided into two different views. On the one hand, CI is seen as an attempt to use Chinese language and culture to win over the hearts and minds of other countries, to provide others with a better understanding of China (Starr, 2009) . However, on the other hand CI is also considered to be able to generate hostility (Liu, 2019) .

With the worldwide “China fever” heating up, the Chinese education is developing day by day, which makes Indonesians’ enthusiasm for learning Chinese constantly rising. This has made many primary and secondary schools in Indonesia set Chinese as a compulsory subject and a popular elective subject. Yang (2010) argues that China is using the internationalization of education via the Confucius Institutes to expand its international influence and promote its model of governance abroad.

Confucius Institute at Malang State University (CI UM) was founded in collaboration between Malang State University in Indonesia and Guangxi Normal University in China. Confucius Institute/UM Chinese Language Center was established on March 14, 2011 and became one of the branches Confucius Institute/Chinese Language Center established by overseas Guangxi Normal University.

Since its establishment, the development of CI UM has been very rapid and has become a cultural resource and foundation that has a function as a communication link between China and the city of Malang and its surroundings, playing an active role in encouraging the teaching of Chinese in Indonesia and fostering positive communication about culture and education between the two countries. CI UM has various important roles in the development of learning Chinese at State University of Malang.

Guangxi Normal University and State University of Malang are very experienced in education and culture. Therefore, CI UM focuses its attention on popularizing Chinese in the world, collaborating with the Chinese Language Education study program at State University of Malang, holding high-quality Chinese courses and cultural academic exchange activities. Until now, the Chinese Language Education Study Program has graduated eleven batches of students and will continue to steadily improve the teaching of Chinese. Stimulate the enthusiasm of Indonesian students to learn Chinese, and expand the international influence of Chinese.

2. Confucius Institute, State University of Malang

Confucius Institute headquartered at State University of Malang is one of eight Confucius Institutes in Indonesia. CI UM, which is supported by CIEF which is supported by CIEF (Chinese International Education Foundation) and CLEC (Centre for Language Education and Cooperation), organizes Chinese language and culture learning. CI UM was established in 2010 as a means to further enhance educational exchanges and cooperation between Indonesia and China.

CI UM does not only serve UM students in learning Chinese, but also serves the people of Malang City and its surroundings who want to learn Chinese language and culture. CI UM has good quality Chinese language and culture teaching due to the support from the collaboration of teachers and lecturers from Guangxi Normal University, China.

CI functions as an important platform for developing and facilitating Chinese language teaching abroad and promoting educational and cultural exchanges and cooperation between China and other international communities (Liu, 2019) . The services provided include 1) teaching Chinese; 2) training Chinese teachers; 3) providing Chinese teaching resources; 4) administering the Chinese language examination and certification of Chinese teacher qualifications; 5) provide information consultation on Chinese education and culture; and 6) carrying out Chinese and foreign language and cultural exchange activities.

Confucius Institute at Malang State University (UM) is a cultural center dedicated to promoting and developing understanding of Chinese language, culture, and history in Indonesia. Confucius Institute at UM is a collaboration between UM and Confucius Institute of the Center for Chinese Language and Culture (Hanban) which was founded in 2010. Confucius Institute at UM offers a variety of educational and cultural programs designed to introduce Chinese culture to Indonesian society, including students, teachers, and the general public. These programs include Chinese language courses, Chinese art and culture courses, seminars, workshops, exhibitions and art performances.

Chinese language courses offered by Confucius Institute at UM is designed to help students improve their ability to communicate and understand Chinese. This course covers teaching grammar, vocabulary, and speaking and listening skills. Besides that, Confucius Institute at UM also offers a Chinese language certification exam (HSK) for students who wish to test their Chinese language skills. Chinese arts and culture program offered by Confucius Institute at UM includes various activities such as dance, music, painting, and calligraphy. This program aims to introduce and promote Chinese arts and culture in Indonesia and develop an understanding of Chinese cultural heritage.

Confucius Institute at UM also promotes academic and cultural exchange between Indonesia and China through student exchange programs, curriculum development, and research activities. This aims to deepen understanding and skills in the field of Chinese language and culture and enhance bilateral relations between Indonesia and China. With varied and quality programs supported by qualified teaching staff and adequate facilities, Confucius Institute at UM are ready to provide quality educational and cultural experiences as well as broaden the horizons and experiences of students and the general public in Indonesia.

3. Confucius Institute Management, State University of Malang

Based on the results of interviews conducted with 17 CI lecturers regarding the lecturer recruitment management process, it can be concluded that all lecturers stated that the recruitment process was very good and rational. In addition, the process is also rigorous with various selection and training. Lecturers working at CI UM must have at least a bachelor’s degree from well-known universities in China. In addition, in general, the management system is relatively good for lecturers.

Based on the elaboration of the results of the interviews that have been conducted and to one director from China, one director from Indonesia, one head of Malang State University, and 17 CI UM lecturers, several important points can be drawn as follows.

First, Confucius Institute at UM has an organizational structure consisting of leaders, supervisory boards, and teaching staff. The leader of Confucius Institute at UM is responsible for managing and coordinating all activities related to this institute. Meanwhile, the supervisory board is responsible for monitoring and evaluating performance Confucius Institute at UM and providing suggestions for improvement.

Second, Confucius Institute in UM also has a financial management system that is separate from ME finances, which aims to ensure transparency and accountability in fund management. Financial management Confucius Institute at UM is carried out according to strict standards and is continuously monitored by the Hanban.

Third, Confucius Institute at UM also has a performance appraisal system for qualified and professional teaching staff. The teaching staff of Confucius Institute at UM are recruited from China and Indonesia, and must have sufficient qualifications and experience in teaching Chinese language and culture. Assessment of teaching staff performance is carried out regularly and based on standards set by Hanban.

Fourth, Confucius Institute in UM also has an evaluation system of activities carried out by this institute. Evaluation is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the activities carried out by Confucius Institute at UM and assessing its impact on Indonesian society in introducing Chinese culture. With a good and orderly management system, Confucius Institute at UM can provide quality and effective services for students, teachers, and the general public in Indonesia in introducing Chinese language and culture and enhancing bilateral relations between Indonesia and China.

Program Planning and Implementation of Confucius Institute at UM has structured and effective program planning and implementation in introducing Chinese language and culture to Indonesian people. The programs held include Chinese teaching programs, student exchanges, seminars and conferences, arts and cultural activities, as well as developing curriculum and teaching materials.

Human Resource Development of Confucius Institute at UM has a human resource development program that focuses on training and development of teaching staff, training of Chinese language and culture for the general public, as well as exchange of experience and knowledge between teaching staff in Indonesia and China.

Risk and Security Management of Confucius Institute at UM has a strict risk management and security system in carrying out activities. This includes supervising teaching staff and managing the security of the personal data of students and program participants.

Cooperation Network Development of Confucius Institute at UM continues to develop a network of cooperation with Chinese and Indonesian institutions to improve program quality and strengthen bilateral relations between the two countries. Some of the collaborations that have been carried out include Fudan University, Shanghai University, as well as various institutions and universities in Indonesia.

Financial Management of Confucius Institute in UM has a financial management system that is transparent and accountable by following the standards and regulations set by Hanban. Financial Management is as all company activities with efforts to obtain company funds at low cost and effort to use and allocate these funds efficiently (Sutrisno, 2013) . This financial management includes monitoring the use of funds, filing periodic financial reports, as well as monitoring compliance with applicable regulations.

Based on the results of observations, financial management is carried out by two parties. The head office invests funds in the form of money to the Local Partner University. The initial capital is used during the running of this program. This budget is monitored annually by the head office. The regulation is carried out by a special financial staff assigned by UM, then plans a financial budget, and makes monthly and annual financial reports.

Financial management is overseen by two directors, namely directors from the Chinese side and from the Indonesian side. CI UM’s funding management is also regulated in China’s Fund Management Regulations for Confucius Institute. Based on the results of interviews with CI UM managers, the sources said that universities in Indonesia that collaborated with CI did not incur any costs.

The next aspect is HR management that manages CI UM. Based on the results of interviews with teaching informants who work at CI UM, it was stated that there was a guest lecturer who taught at UM and was an extraordinary lecturer as a result of the collaboration between UM and CI, and Guangxi Normal University. In addition, training is also provided for teachers and students with other facilities such as human resource development and learning quality.

One of the sources said that the recruitment of Chinese lecturers or teachers as CI UM teachers was through the process of registering, conducting due diligence, conducting exams, and training. Each year, the number of lecturers is different. The Director of CI UM performs daily task checks as a form of quality control. Recruited lecturers are lecturers who meet the requirements as teachers.

The director selection system at CI UM is carried out by registering, attending dean training after passing a political review, interviews, and psychological tests. After completing the training, director candidates must take part in internships or practical work before being sent to the destination country. The director candidate is a native of China. As for the things that are done for HR management, before the start of the new semester, a teacher meeting is held to announce the relevant regulations and inform them about preventive measures. Organizing new teachers to learn Indonesian culture, customs, laws and regulations. If there is a problem with the teacher, they need to inform the director as soon as possible so that they can be dealt with in a timely manner.

With a good management system in all aspects, Confucius Institute at UM made a significant contribution to the development of Chinese language and culture in Indonesia as well as enhancing bilateral relations between the two countries.

4. The Role of the Confucius Institute in the Development of Learning Chinese

With the continuous acceleration of globalization and informatization, the status and value of language increased and emerged. As an important platform for developing and facilitating overseas Chinese language teaching and promoting educational and cultural exchanges and cooperation between China and other international communities (Liu, 2019) , the Confucius Institute is in a critical period of high development, deep integration, and brand upgrading. Its role in promoting the formation of communities with a shared future for humanity is becoming increasingly important. While the Confucius Institute has contributed to a significant increase in China’s international influence, some persistent and representative issues have not been effectively resolved. In order to achieve sustainable and innovative development, the Confucius Institute must identify problems and focus on the main contradictions to think about development strategies, clarify development positions, enhance cooperation mechanisms, invest resources rationally according to development needs at different stages, and achieve development goals in an integrated manner step by step regularly.

In the context of the development of international higher education, the future development of the Confucius Institute has great significance and potential value for enhancing China’s soft power. It recognizes the important role of higher education in the projection of soft power, promotes international exchange and collaboration to expand its global influence, and seeks to formalize the benefits of its rich heritage by establishing the Confucius Institute, which is a center for language studies (Yang, 2011) . As an international platform for deepening academic exchanges, spreading Chinese culture and promoting China’s contemporary position abroad, the construction and development of the Confucius Institute should support opportunities for universities to enhance their internationalization. Chinese universities should fully deal with existing problems in developing Confucius Institutes, jointly explore development ideas, and jointly seek an overall international development pattern.

In terms of countries and regions where the Confucius Institute is located, the number of countries and regions where the Confucius Institute is located has continued to grow, from 5 at the beginning of its establishment to 162 in 2019 (see Figure 1) (Gao, 2020) .

From the perspective of the current school scale, first, the scale of the Confucius Institute in 2004-2019 is growing rapidly (see Figure 2). Zhou Ji, deputy chairman of the Confucius Institute Headquarters Council in 2008, pointed out that the existing Confucius Institutes should be further improved in running schools, and the number of Confucius Institutes should be properly controlled (Gao, 2020) .

Figure 1. Distribution of Confucius institutions in countries and regions.

Figure 2. Confucius institution class room development.

CI lecturers who are placed at UM use various learning methods that are adapted to the curriculum set at State University of Malang. Meanwhile, the management of Chinese language classes and Chinese culture is more focused on students.

1) Teaching Chinese

Confucius Institute at UM offers Chinese language teaching programs to students, staff, and the general public. This program consists of various levels and has a curriculum that is tailored to the needs of participants. Language teaching is carried out by teaching staff who are trained and experienced in teaching Chinese to foreigners.

2) Teaching Chinese Culture in addition to Language Teaching

Confucius Institute at UM also provides teaching of Chinese culture such as art, music, and traditional dance. This aims to provide a better understanding of Chinese culture to Indonesian people.

3) Education and Training for Chinese Language Teachers

Confucius Institute at UM also offers education and training programs for Chinese teaching staff. This program aims to improve the quality of teaching and the ability of teachers to teach Chinese to foreigners.

4) Student and Staff Exchange Program

Confucius Institute at UM organizes student and staff exchange programs between UM and universities in China. This program aims to increase understanding and knowledge between the two countries and also strengthen bilateral relations.

5) Curriculum

Confucius Institute at UM has a comprehensive and structured curriculum to facilitate the teaching of Chinese language and culture. This curriculum includes learning Chinese, cultural skills, traditional Chinese arts, and Chinese history. The curriculum is structured according to international Chinese language teaching standards and is studied in stages from elementary to advanced levels.

6) Teaching Materials

Confucius Institute at UMM had teaching materials that up-to-date and varied developed by teaching staff from UM as well as from China. Teaching materials used include textbooks, teaching materials online, multimedia, and others. All teaching materials at Confucius Institute in UM adapted to the needs and interests of students to achieve optimal learning outcomes.

7) Teaching Method

Confucius Institute at UM uses effective and innovative teaching methods to improve the quality of learning Chinese language and culture. This teaching method includes integrated learning, independent learning, project-based learning, and experiential learning. In addition, the use of technology in learning is also applied to make the learning process more interesting and interactive.

8) Assessment of Learning Outcomes

Confucius Institute at UM has a clear and transparent learning achievement assessment system to ensure students’ success in learning Chinese language and culture. The assessment system includes regular tests and evaluations, as well as a final exam to determine the student’s level of language proficiency. The results of the assessment are also used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum and teaching methods.

9) Extracurricular activities

Confucius Institute at UM provides extracurricular activities that support learning Chinese language and culture, such as language clubs, art clubs, and sports clubs. This extracurricular activity aims to deepen students’ understanding of Chinese culture and strengthen their language skills through hands-on experience.

With solid and quality substantive aspects, Confucius Institute at UM can provide quality teaching of Chinese language and culture and meet the needs of Indonesian students and society. The management of Confucius Institute at Malang State University certainly went through a long process. In addition to the main substantive aspects supporting CI UM management (Confucius Institute State University of Malang), substantive aspects are also required, which include financial management and HR management.

Management Confucius Institute (CI) State University of Malang involves several stages. Good and targeted management will enable an organization to implement its strategy through program planning, budget processes, performance management systems, organizational structure changes, and project program management.

First, basic financial planning at CI Malang is carried out by the central CI in China and CI Malang. Finance is managed by two parties with one representative each. The two parties work together to manage finances at CI Malang. Since the inception of CI Malang, the central CI in China has provided money for the full cost of the CI Malang program.

CI Malang and CI central control expenses jointly for the purposes of running the program. Meanwhile, CI Malang acts as a provider of housing in the country of origin or provides housing facilities to parties working in the CI Malang program. One example is providing temporary housing in the form of dormitories for teachers or lecturers from China who teach at partner campuses. This is in line with what was conveyed by Wheelen and Hunger (2008) that the strategic management process is a series of steps, decisions and organizational actions that determine the long-term performance of the company. In addition, according to Kaufman (1972) , planning is the process of determining goals or objectives to be achieved and determining the paths and resources needed to achieve these goals as efficiently and effectively as possible.

Second, planning based on estimates is done for long-term planning. Robinson Jr. and Pearce (2003) argue that strategic management is large-scale and long-term planning so that organizations can interact effectively in production and optimize the achievement of both strategic and operational goals. At CI Malang, long-term planning is done by planning activities that will be carried out for one semester to one year ahead. This is done with the aim of knowing the amount of costs required in the implementation of the CI Malang program. There is also a written cooperation agreement made by each party. The contents of the agreement are an explanation of the rights and obligations of each party. Thus, long-term program activities can be properly analyzed and estimated. The long-term financial management system is also separate from partner campus finances. This is intended so that the transparency and accountability of the management of funds from the central CI is clear. Finances are monitored centrally and carried out to very strict standards. In line with that, Tjakraatmadja (2006) revealed that planning is the process of preparing systematically the activities carried out to achieve certain goals. With planning, both financial and other planning, it is hoped that it will make it easier to achieve long-term goals.

Third, the development strategic planning from the previous stage is to consider the conditions or circumstances in the field. In line with this, Afin (2013) argues that strategic management is a way to grow and manage strategies to achieve goals properly and precisely according to the targets and time that has been set. At this stage, it is necessary to formulate a strategy designed by management. The elaboration of the field condition considerations is as follows. CI Malang has an organizational structure consisting of a leadership, supervisory board, and teaching staff. The leadership of CI Malang is responsible for managing and coordinating all activities related to this institute. Meanwhile, the supervisory board is responsible for monitoring and evaluating the performance of CI Malang and providing suggestions for improvement.

Fourth, strategic management is the development of strategic planning. At this stage there needs to be input from the bottom to the top to find out whether the previous development strategy went well or not and whether the strategy was implemented effectively or not. Model bottom up is a model that views the process as a negotiation in consensus building. This model emphasizes the fact that implementation in the field provides flexibility in implementing policies (Riant, 2011) . Input from organizers such as lecturers and students is needed to improve management. The leadership or management needs to listen to input and complaints as an initial capital to correct existing deficiencies. Various complaints expressed by subordinates related to misunderstandings due to miscommunication between the two countries.

5. Challenges and Difficulties Facing the Development of the Confucius Institute Developments Faced by the Confucius Institute in the Context of International Chinese Education Transformation

In 2019, the Confucius Institute Global Conference changed its name to International Chinese Education Conference, with the theme of Innovation and Development of International Chinese Education in the New Era, from Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language to International Chinese Education to International Chinese Education, with broader connotations and extensions. The name change is a conceptual innovation of the international promotion of the Chinese language under the new situation and the appearance of the content of the Confucius Institute which needs to be enriched and perfected.

After years of rapid development, the Confucius Institute faced challenges and difficulties while growing bigger. Several scholars analyze the four main dilemmas of trust, structure, management, and quality that Confucius Institute faces in the new era from a macro governance perspective. The trust dilemma primarily refers to the over-interpretation of the institutional attributes of the Confucius Institute and political prejudices that lead to questioning the legitimacy of their existence and facing a crisis of recognition. The structural dilemma mainly refers to the unreasonable regional distribution structure of the Confucius Institute. That is, the Confucius Institute is mostly spread over countries and regions with high economic and social development. Taking Africa, America and Europe as an example, there are 61 of 46 African countries; 138 in 27 countries in North America and Latin America; 187 in 42 countries in Europe (Myklebus, 2020) .

From an average point of view, Africa is much higher than Europe. This unequal distribution will lead to an unequal distribution of resources. In addition, the structural dilemma is also reflected in the structural asymmetry of supply and demand. The fundamental core is the discrepancy between the teaching content and cultural presentations of the Confucius Institute and the actual needs of local people and the deviations of supply and demand. The management dilemma means that the Confucius Institute’s management mechanism is not standardized enough, and the evaluation feedback mechanism is not good enough, which causes the overall effect of the Confucius Institute to be low participation and sense of profit.

In addition to the dilemmas mentioned above, the obstacles faced by the development of the Confucius Institute are also reflected in the following: Without accurate localization, the Confucius Institute has a long way to go as a unit of multiculturalism to integrate into the local culture. The contents of the school run relatively single, based on the language and cultural experience education model, lack of professional disciplinary support, and there is no disciplinary system. Failing to truly integrate with the local national education system, some foreign partner universities treat the Confucius Institute as a project only. Chinese teaching and courses are not officially recognized, and so on. In general, the quality and effectiveness of the Confucius Institute needs to be further improved, and the standards and scientific aspects of the school that are running are still inadequate. This statement is an important direction for the future transformation and improvement of the system.

6. Confucius Institute Management Development Strategy, State University of Malang

Based on the results of observations, suggestions for strategies that can be carried out to develop CI UM are by 1) increasing self-promotion and branding, 2) improving the quality of Chinese teachers, 3) making local teaching materials in learning, 4) promote a good Chinese-speaking environment, 5) develop a combined model of teaching Chinese and job skills and 6) increase cooperation with other institutions in Indonesia and China.

6.1. Increasing Self-Promotion and Branding

The first problem faced by Confucius Institute (CI) at Malang State University (UM) is a lack of self-promotion and branding. According to Swasty (2016) , branding is the overall process of selecting elements, values, and promises that are owned by an entity which includes products, services, companies, and so on. The purpose of branding according to Farid (2017) , is to build perceptions both in terms of impressions and messages from a brand in the thoughts and feelings of consumers. CI UM needs to promote more actively to increase public awareness about their existence and their activities. This can be done by creating attractive and sustainable promotional materials such as posters, leaflet, brochures, and others. In addition, CI UM can use their social media and website to promote themselves and increase user engagement. Activities such as seminars, conferences and workshops may also be held to raise awareness about CI UM. Confucius Institute needs to strengthen self-promotion through various channels, such as social media, websites, brochures, and so on. In addition, they can also take advantage of the alumni network and collaboration with government and private agencies to expand the reach of promotions and build a positive image.

6.2. Improving the Quality of Chinese Teachers

The second problem faced by CI UM is the lack of Chinese teachers. Although CI UM has attracted several Chinese teachers from China, they are still lacking to meet the demand for teaching Chinese. As a solution, CI UM can look for local Chinese teachers who can help increase the number of Chinese teachers and strengthen relationships with the local community. In addition, CI UM can provide training for local Chinese teachers to improve the quality of their teaching.

6.3. Making Local Teaching Materials in Learning

The third problem faced by CI UM is the lack of local teaching materials in learning. Confucius Institute can take advantage of the richness of Indonesian culture to make local teaching materials in learning Chinese. This can attract students’ interest in learning Chinese and provide added value in learning.

Although CI UM has used several teaching materials from China, the lack of local teaching materials in learning can affect the effectiveness of teaching Chinese. Teaching materials are all forms of materials used to assist teachers or instructors in carrying out teaching and learning activities in class (Mudlofir, 2017) . As a solution, CI UM can create or develop local teaching materials that can be integrated into Chinese language teaching programs. This can be done by involving local teaching staff and creating collaborative projects to develop teaching materials.

6.4. Promote a Good Chinese-Speaking Environment

The fourth problem faced by CI UM is the lack of a good Chinese speaking environment. Confucius Institute needs to create a conducive environment for students to learn Chinese. This can be done by providing adequate facilities and means, as well as creating a fun and interactive learning atmosphere. This can affect students’ ability to actively practice Chinese. As a solution, CI UM can create a conducive environment for learning Chinese, such as holding a Chinese language club or a Chinese language discussion forum. In addition, CI UM can also provide needed resources, such as audio and video lessons, to improve students’ ability to speak and hear Chinese.

6.5. Develop a Combined Model of Teaching Chinese and Job Skills

The fifth problem faced by CI UM is the lack of a combined model of teaching Chinese and employability skills that occurs in universities in Indonesia. Trianto (2015) suggests that the learning model is a plan or a pattern that is used as a guide in implementing classroom learning or learning in tutorials. Confucius Institute needs to develop teaching models that integrate Chinese with job skills needed in the world of work. This can strengthen the added value of the Chinese language teaching program, as well as increase the competitiveness of graduates in the world of work. This can affect the competitiveness of graduates in the job market. As a solution, CI UM can create programs that combine teaching Chinese and job skills, such as Chinese business courses or internship programs in Chinese companies.

In order to improve the quality of teaching, Confucius Institute need to continue to strengthen the quality of the Chinese teachers they have. This can be done by conducting training and competency development for existing teachers, as well as recruiting new teachers who are qualified and have experience in teaching Chinese.

These programs can be conducted to increase the awareness of students who have not enough knowledge about the existence of Confucius Institute.

1) Increase promotions

Increase knowledge about Confucius Institute through promotions in schools and the community, such as putting up posters, distributing brochures, and other activities.

2) Strengthen cooperation

Collaborate with schools to provide more activities and courses related to Chinese culture, so as to attract students’ interest in learning Confucius Institute.

3) Make use of social media

Using social media platforms such as WeChat, Weibo, and so on to spread information about Confucius Institute and interest students to learn it.

4) Promote cultural exchange

Organize more Chinese cultural exchange activities, which can attract more students’ participation, and promote and introduce Confucius Institute at the same time.

6.6. Increase Cooperation with Other Institutions in Indonesia and China

The continuous development of Mandarin language education in Malang also encourages economic and trade improvements between the two countries. By paying attention to local problems of Chinese companies in Indonesia and enhancing cooperation between universities and companies, it can not only promote the development of Mandarin language education, but also provide educational support for the construction of “One Belt One Road”. Such as the Jakarta-Bandung high-speed train project, which is China’s first high-speed train system project abroad and is an iconic project of the “One Belt One Road” initiative.

Chinese and Indonesian universities need to focus on the demand for workers with “Chinese language + job skills” in Chinese-owned enterprises in Indonesia, in cooperation with Confucius Institutes. There is also a need to provide teachers with good technical and Chinese language teaching skills. Enterprises can provide internships for students. At the same time, universities can also arrange internships for students in enterprises. The approach not only meets the needs of local enterprises, but also helps students to explore employment opportunities and increase the local employment rate.

The Confucius Institute at the State University of Malang is an important bridge to strengthen friendship between the two countries and encourage cooperation in various fields such as education, economy, trade, tourism and culture.

7. Conclusion

The role of the Confucius Institute at State University of Malang and the Confucius Institute in China manage finances in a transparent manner by both parties with a predetermined division of tasks. The process of recruiting human resources or teachers is carried out for competence development. Lecturers who are sent to local partner campuses need to pass several test stages which are very long and are carried out transparently. Teacher acceptance standards have also been set and registered lecturers must meet these standards before they can join CI. In addition, good and strong leadership must be considered so that the vision and mission of the campus can be achieved perfectly. The development strategy needs to be carried out by involving all people involved in CI UM. CI UM as an important platform for developing and facilitating Chinese language teaching abroad and promoting educational and cultural exchanges and cooperation between China and Indonesia. The effectiveness of the training programs of CI UM applied in Indonesia could cover several aspects, both in terms of culture, education, economics, and bilateral relations between Indonesia and China: Increasing Understanding of Chinese Culture; Enhanced Educational Relations; Enhanced Job and Business Opportunities; Strengthened Bilateral Relations. With the right approach, CI UM can be a valuable resource in strengthening educational and cultural cooperation and promoting understanding and dialogue between Indonesia and China.


The author expresses sincere thanks to anonymous reviewers.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


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