Discovery of the First Homer’s Toponym Inscriptions in Ljubuski, Herzegovina


For the first time, we encounter the toponym inscriptions mentioned in Homer’s books. In the little city of Ljubuski, Herzegovina, there is evidence that Troy could be among Croatian people. The oldest world’s geoglyphs are in Europe. The conclusion is based on non-offensive landscape archaeology and satellite imagery of Google Earth. Homer’s books and other classics take a new confirmed expression of historical data. The inscriptions are readable only looking from the sky at a certain height with a range between some hundred meters to several thousands of meters. Different from the established opinion, a unique way of stylized writing moves the Greek alphabet deeper into the past. Here are presented the megalithic walls shaping the word of Yilios, invoking the city of Ilios in the Iliad. Along with that, dozens of similar fortresses in the rockery landscapes are linked with holy geometry phi ratios.

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Herceg, I. (2023) Discovery of the First Homer’s Toponym Inscriptions in Ljubuski, Herzegovina. Archaeological Discovery, 11, 218-223. doi: 10.4236/ad.2023.114011.

1. Introduction

Here are presented findings related to Homer’s books suggesting that the Iliad is based on real toponyms. The article elaborating on sites shows a lost historical chapter mentioned in Greek mythology. The results match the facts of nonfiction in Homer’s works determining Troy in Europe. It generates a hypothesis putting findings in the first plan. This research is understandable for ordinary people but skilled linguists and palaeographers will recognize the contribution to philology and Homerology. It is compelling scientifically measurable evidence opening a new window into Bronze Age civilizations. Also, in the region of Ljubuski, some known archaeological sites could be related to the Iliad thanks to the discovery of Homer’s toponyms. Several researchers located Troy in Herzegovina, and the most prominent is the Mexican author (Price, 1984) . Their evidence is based on the similarity of landscapes, flora and fauna, and meteorological, and astronomic indicators. The first geoglyph inscriptions in the world are the first material evidence about the Iliad anywhere. For example, Troy located in Hisarlik is not founded on any written evidence and Homer’s descriptions partially correspond to Asian landscapes and are often diametrically opposite. In this case, the region of Ljubuski seems a real image of the Iliad. The article is part of a broader research, including dozens of inscriptions Yilios (Ilios) and Xpoya (Troy) in the region of Ljubuski. However, it needs deeper interdisciplinary research. Here are presented only two ones pointing to stylized letters corresponding to other findings.

2. Yilios Inscription of Zuzelj Fortress

Known as the Illyrian fortress, the old town of Zuzelj (Figure 1), is on the hill of the same name at an elevation of 297 M above the village of Miletina, in Ljubuski municipality, Herzegovina. The rainy stream of Lukoc is on the west side of the hill emptying into the Studencica River, southwest, at about 2.7 km, which is a tributary of the Trebizat. The site is at 22.8 km from the Adriatic port Ploce at the mouth of the Neretva River. The Archaeological Lexicon of Bosnia and Herzegovina noted that site (AL BH 1998) . Zuzelj is the most famous Bronze Age megalithic fortress in Herzegovina. At first sight, it has an irregular flowering rose shape with jumbled walls, in which there are unusually numerous passages. It cannot be compared to any other fortress in the environment. Likewise, nowhere in the world is known as such a kinky but circled form of construction. For centuries, it was considered a puzzle for archaeologists and other prehistory researchers. A personal insight into the site shows inexplicably numerous passageways between the walls, which some researchers attribute to a special defense system of ramparts, but also have another purpose. In satellite view, the walls depict letters, and their passages define letter borders. The spiral word Yilios shaped the fortress in the next Figure 1.

Further, the above sketch (Figure 2) highlighted the key point of discovery. Figure 3 is the illustration of the site. The signs are close to the Latin writing but the specific letters (omicron, sigma) determine the Greek alphabet. Upsilon (Υ), iota (ι), lambda (λ), iota (ι), omicron (σ), and sigma (ς) are the six wall signs. They can be transcribed as Yilios. The dating of the first Greek writings, at the earliest IX century BC, questions the assumed age of the fortress. However, several archaeologists, familiar with the region, have assessed the walls and classified them as the early Bronze Age heritage. No excavations have been undertaken so far. The remains of ceramics and other artifacts from that period are observed in the location (Dodig, 2013) . Herzegovinian circled ruin forts belong to the early Bronze Age Cetina Culture of Dalmatian Coast and hinterland (2200-1500 BC) named according to the sites along the Cetina River. However, the exact

Figure 1. Fortress Zuzelj (Google Earth 2018/Resolution 3840 × 2160) 43˚10'59"N 17˚39'14"E.

Figure 2. Yilios wall sketch (Google Earth 2018) 1, Y, 2, ί, 3, l, 4, ί, 5, o, 6, s.

Figure 3. Illustration of the spiral fort inscription of Yilios.

date of the creation of Zuzelj walls is still open. Radiocarbon analysis of biological remains in tumuli would remove any doubts.

In addition, archaeogenetic research has confirmed the practice of tumuli burial in the neighboring town of Vrgorac in the 17th Century BC (Mathieson et al., 2018) . That site Veliki Vanik is classified into the Cetina Culture (Freilich et al., 2021) . It corresponds to the estimated period of the early Bronze Age Zuzelj Fortress. Therefore, the Greek alphabet predates the Phoenician, which is unacceptable for now. In that time the region was inhabited by cave people who were buried in stone barrows. Some archaeologists compared local excavations with the Wessex Culture in England. However, no inscriptions are attributed to that culture, so far. As a result of the found writing, the circled forts of Herzegovina are the elite part of the time and may be classified into the parallel unique Bronze Age Yilios Culture.

3. Civilization’s Trajectory

Besides, the shape of the walls and their hitherto hidden linguistic content, it needs to mention the fundamental characteristics of the fortress. The walls are called the city because of their size. Uneven ruined ramparts reach a width of several to ten meters. Their preserved height is from 0.5 to 5.5 M. The range of most protruding points in the approximate east-west direction is about 252 M. The shape is irregular; therefore, other dimensions are recorded elsewhere depending on the measurement. But applying the coordinate system, with the crossing point at the top of the larger tumuli, the dimensions are 252/180 M. Inside the fort, a smaller circular wall connects two tumuli at about thirty meters, but researchers have not realized its purpose, so far. The large barrow is approximately 38 M in diameter and the smaller is irregular, and about 25 M in diameter. Looking from the sky, the circle, together with the tumuli, form a new word Yilios, so that the larger barrow represents the letter omicron, and the smaller is sigma. Figure 4 shows a sketch of the second word Yilios.

Hypothetically, it connects the terrestrial and celestial city of Yilios and the circle inscription could be a sign of the civilization’s trajectory. Apparently, the larger circled barrow displays the star’s heavenly throne, and the irregular smaller head shape represents the descending on earth. Further, looking through some astronomic traits of sites makes the next observations. Following that direction, the letter shape of the walls is not only characteristic of the site, representing also two constellations shown in Figure 5.

In Figure 5, the first red line (1) is similar to the Serpent constellation, defined from the most prominent circular loop (omega) to its tail. The length between these two points is about 222 M. The figure is the phi ratio of the circle degrees and 1/2 of the Pleiadian light distance. Then, the second white line (2) circular G shape also shows the Pleiadian cluster. The inner southern and outer northern walls display it, where is the main entrance. It covers the endpoints of 160 × 160 M (proportional to the phi). The circle with a diameter of 160 M, described in the center point between the two barrows, includes all endpoints of the G shape, which in ancient symbolism was the Pleiadean sign. Therefore, Zuzelj Fort is the Bronze Age astronomic sanctuary. The two constellations confirm the aforementioned suggestion about both celestial and terrestrial cities marked

Figure 4. Civilization’s trajectory. 1, Y, 2, i, 3, l, 4, i, 5, o, 6, s.

Figure 5. Two constellations. 1, Constellation of Serpent; 2, Stellar Pleiades Cluster.

on the ground. Hypothetically, the bigger Yilios rampart inscription represents the universe, and smaller wall letters show our planet like two inside barrows. It defines astronomy and religion as an undivided discipline of the ancient time. Northwest of the castle at 365 M are two connected barrows. Further, southeast and northwest of Yilios walls are two other forts. From the end west point of Zuzelj, both are at 1.618 km (phi). On the same line toward the northwest is a new triple stone circle on the hill above the village of Cerno at 3.2 km (2phi). These holy geometry relations show that the time of construction of all circled forts belongs to the same Age. In addition, around are dozens of similar ancient fortresses linked by a sacral ground plan, but without inscriptions. Also, several geoglyphs are related to Yilios Walls.

4. Conclusion

The ruined shape of Yilios Zuzelj Fortress expresses the religious concept of time and its struggle for survival in an unusual but practical and scientific way. Also, it can be defined as an astronomical shrine of the early Bronze Age. Circled stone forts are the symbols of the pre-Trojan sun cult. Homer based the Trojan Culture on the sun cult of Apollo who was the protector of Troy. The inscription of Yilios is etymologically related to the sun like the city of Ilios. Under archaeological estimation and in accordance with the defined Cetina Culture in the region, Herzegovinian circled forts existed before Dardanus arrived at Mount Ida and his descendant Tros founded Troy. Therefore, the inscription of Yilios is not an apriori mark for the city of Ilios but it may be its eponym. Under the wider research, Zuzelj Fort is not the city of the Iliad. However, it could be somewhere around. In conclusion, the letter walls of Zuzelj are the first toponym out of books for Homer’s city of Ilios. Further research will give a final answer about Troy. Nevertheless, we can confirm the Iliad is based on nonfiction.

Croatian Words in English

Ljubuski, Ljubuški

Studencica, Studenčica

Trebizat, Trebižat

Zuzelj, Žuželj

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


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