Berrettini Anastomosis Iatrogenic Injury Relating to Carpel Tunnel Syndrome Case Study


Some diseases require medical mitigation following the diagnosis, and sometimes the situation means that the patient has to undertake strong medication. However, this medicine is designed pharmacodynamically to interact with other organs before they reach the intended organ. Some mitigation imposes challenges on the involved organ. While the main organ will be healed, some drugs’ footprints will be left out to other organs. These are called iatrogenic injuries. In the case of anastomosis, it requires the alteration of surgical methods or the origin of iatrogenic injury in the arm; thus, the knowledge of anastomosis is very important to the field of medical practice. In addition, carpal tunnel release becomes vital in curing carpal tunnel syndrome. The paper focuses on a case of a 42-year-old woman found to have a complication to her middle finger. This case becomes important for studying Berrettini anastomosis iatrogenic injury, which relates to carpal tunnel syndrome. The Berrettini branch is a complication that facilitates communication between the superficial ulnar and median nerve. The analysis also provides the electro-diagnostic evidence of Berrettini anastomosis on how it can give a position three-finger and thus contribute to a force explanation of the median neuropraxia. Lastly, the paper provides information on the implication of the Berrettini branch for surgical use. The implication of pictures in the digital era can be used to analyze the varied connection and length between the median nerve and ulnar section. It’s easy to locate the position of high risk of iatrogenic injury in the palm due to the consistent location of Berrettini communication branches. The precaution is that operations have to be conducted moderately for a clear vision as the carefully mitigated practice ensures protection from the destruction and injury of the surrounding structures.

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Farhina, M. (2022) Berrettini Anastomosis Iatrogenic Injury Relating to Carpel Tunnel Syndrome Case Study. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 13, 494-500. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2022.1311037.

1. Introduction

Iatrogenic injury is organ or tissue damage that results from pharmacotherapy, necessary medical treatment, or may be from using medical devices that have no relation to the primary disease. This injury that emerges from applying some drugs fairy interacts with the other organs, for instance, the skin, subcutaneous layer of tissue or even tissues found amerced down the skin layer. When these organs are compromised, they result in something different called iatrogenic wounds. This injury can be intense depending on the disease or the depth of the medicine used to cure the organs. The point to note is that the iatrogenic injury results from the necessary treatment of a particular condition but the medicine also affects other organs. Berrettini’s anastomosis has been identified as the most encountered condition and is described as a neural connection between the common digital nerves in the median nerves and the ulnar.

The altered innervation sequences of the musculoskeletal complication of the forearm and hand have misleading symptoms. In addition, when anastomosis appears, it requires altering surgical methods or being the origin of iatrogenic injury; therefore, this information about anastomosis is important to medical practice. Carpal tunnel release is used to treat and heal a painful complication called carpal tunnel syndrome [1]. In carpal tunnel release, a cut is made via the ligament presses down the carpal. The condition makes more room for the tendon and the median nerve that cuts across the tunnel and upgrades suffering and functionality. The paper is a case study set up, and the main objective is to discuss digging more information on the iatrogenic injury of Berrettini anastomosis during carpaltunnel syndrome.

2. The Case of Study of the Patient

The case in the study involves a woman, 42 years old. The woman has no history of high blood pressure or diabetes. She was a housewife and gave care to two kids. The subject developed a complication of numbness and tingling, sensation in the thumb and digits; thus, it was hard for her to carry out her daily chores. Afiel surgical operation released the complication of numbness in her middle finger. After a pre-operation examination, the range of motion was complete, and the tinned sign returned positive. Also, the Afiel post-operation, as well as numbness, was present, but signs test of Phalen came out absent. Thus this case will be used to document Berrittini anastomosis iatrogenic injury in the case of releasing of carpal tunnel.

Since it’s documented on the existence of the nerve communication between ulnar to the median nerve and how it results to correct and counterintuitive conclusion to carry out release of carpal tunnel, its possibly true that failure to produce a correct physical examination may result in diagnosing a patient with carpal tunnel syndrome which is not the case [1], in the long run, this contrasting-information indicate that the patient will not be diagnosed with the right complication and thus not treated accordingly. The berrettini branch, which is often referred to as superficial ulnar to median nerve communication in hand, is a form of pure sensory communication and occurs in most cases. Its injury during the carpel tunnel release can alter the middle ring and figure sensibility. The use of electro-diagnostic clues has identified the median nerve communication, but for neurophysiologists, they are inconclusive since they may fail to identify the unusual observations. In addition, the process is involved errors from the systems being used to give information, but sometimes they may give irrelevant communication. The observer/researcher can have the information presented, giving conclusive and self-satisfactory evidence for a sensory ulnar-to median nerve communication distal that is directed to the elbow. Such details can be useful when performing surgical decision-making despite most neural variations being anatomical, phylogenic and having neurophysiologic interest instead of medical knowledge.

2.1. Electro-Diagnostic Evidence of Berrettini Anastomosis

Median sensory nerve conduction studies in carpal tunnel syndrome can be undertaken on any figure, but this depends on the patient’s and physical preference. Researchers and medical practitioners often employ digital techniques, for instance, digital median sensory nerve action potential evaluation that is associated with some challenges depending on the choice of the digit of preferences [2]. For instance, the measurement error minimizes the measurement error by using the third digit figure being the longest and the largest and thus associated with its size. The finger also has the highest number of presentable nerve courses, therefore vulnerable to carpal pressure due to its strategic position in the palm. Finally, there may be a challenge in the overstimulation of the wrist median nerve that results in fibers depolarization that cross to the third figure. Some patients with severe median neuropathy, while their test for the median sensory nerve action potential is negative, maybe result additional challenges. Thus, it can be concluded that stimulation of the Berrettini anastomosis (BA) gives a digit three-finger and thus contribute to a force explanation of median neuropraxia.

The aspect of palm and hand in various cases reported in anatomical data readable by health practitioners is described as the potential for description for Berrettini anastomosis. This complication is mostly observed in 60% of the general cases; thus, the health caregivers consider it a normal occurrence and anomalous. The Berrettini is more often considered sensory and gives a certain percentage of sensory axons found in the ulnr through the wrist to the palm. To evaluate the ulnar diversion to the medial part, the third normal palm nerve Ferrari and Gilbert did a minute anatomical analysis of Berrettini anastomosis. In their studies, they used dead bodies to observe fiber distribution. However, their sample size was not large enough, and they failed to introduce a foundation of ulnar section in Berrettini anastomosis [2]. The presentation of the sensory nerve action represented as D3 (third digit), as well as a different case presented in the lateral D3, had their representation as the third decile and the overall total digital nerve fiber. The details of ulnar SNAP transection in the palmar part originating from the palm indicate that the palm stimulation strategy in carpal tunnel can be used to hinder the block responsible for the conductive activity and thus gives a negative outcome. There are even more severe cases of carpal tunnel where the median wrist stimulation gives no results. Therefore there is a possibility of extreme stimulation at the hand joint position and ulnar nerve depolarization resulting from the conduction and CTS improper result description.

The evidence of electrodiagnostic evidence of Berrettini anastomosis relates to the dissections that reveal ulnar sensory crossover, which is referred to as the normal anatomy. However, the quantity of research on electro physiologic information is scarcely documented [2]. In the study of various patients, the third position of their Berrettini is measurable in repeated electro-diagnostic nerve conductivity. The observed latency is constant, while the magnitude is less compared to the ulnar sensory response. Also, the information on the clinical importance of the Berrettini in relation to sensory is non-clear. The existence of Berrettini anastomosis in extreme carpal tunnel syndrome can produce less normal latency sensory retreat that can be interpreted and result to undesirable information.

2.2. The Implication of Carpel Tunnel Release on the Branch of the Berrettini Anastomosis

The important part is that carpal tunnel syndrome is curable, and the simpler way is through surgical operation applying for open and endoscopic release. These two techniques are long-term but have no same because the endoscopic carpal release is related to a lower tendency of additional complications and a faster resume to function for the patient’s hand [3]. These strategies have been linked to high iatrogenic injury of the Berrettini anastomosis branch, also termed as communications of palmar region between the medial and ulnar nerve, which affect the middle and the ring finger. This will be possible to know how often the Berrettini occurs and how it may result in iatrogenic injury. The author describes the requirement to successfully evaluate the magnitude of Berrettini anastomosis occurrence in various segments. Proper grouping of the specimen (hands) requires that hands be grouped into four categories per of Ferrari and gilbert scheme. In the observation that was carried out, the author records that group 1 consisted of hands in which communication was directly oblique between the median nerve to the ulnar at an angle of less than 55 and the distance between the distal and the origin of communication on the TCL end to be greater than 4 mm. In the second group, the specimen (hands) involved have a direct communication parallel to the far margin of the TCL and are kept lower than 4 mm at a right angle to the ulnar nerve. The third group had hands whose communication ranges from the third common digital nerve to the ulnar, having an acute angle and the origin from the distal margin to the ulnar on the TCL end is below. The final group of the specimen consisted of hands that linkage is directed from the ulnar to the median nerve and have more than one branch of communication, but in this particular case, it was hard to obtain such hands; there is also total confidence of the report that was obtained due to the involvement of an independent observer.

According to the author, the Berrettini branch can be seen as normal observation, not a variation or anomaly. This study presented a fair finding compared to Shan and meals. The name Berrettini branch came to existence in the field of medicine in 1991, introduced by meals and Calkins. Also, the identification of communication between the ulnar as well as the median nerve was introduced by Pietro da cortina [3]. In classifying the four types of communication, all credit is given to Gilbert and Ferrari because, contrary to the previous researchers, they classified communication into four distinct groups while the others had classified communication into two distinct groups. The analysis in the discussion identified that the third group was seen to be most frequent, having a percentage of 65% compared to those of Ferrari and Gilbert, representing 30%. Communication or relaying information from the ulnar and median nerve is associated with some features. The ulna region of the middle finger and the ring finger of the radial part make up the sensory branch of communication, and this section becomes their main innervation distribution. In addition, when the patients are suffering from Berrettini anastomosis, they are said to have an uncomfortable tingling sensation in the radial half of their ring finger and the corresponding ulnar median finger. This sensation was thus described before ECTR came to action. The valls-sole employs electrophysiological findings to explain the hidden concept of communication between the median and ulnar nerve that operate in hands; he claims that the linking of information uses fibers running within the ulnar nerve to the distal wrist crease, and thus this knowledge would help to determine if the patient has Berrettini branch even before performing the surgical process.

2.3. Berrettini Branch Implication for Surgical Use

In the study under observation, there was a classification of analysis up to four groups. From the study, the learner can articulate that the Berrettini branches were identifiable in groups one and two in 28%. They were observed to be located on the distal incision, and therefore the patients are seen to be exposed to iatrogenic injuries [3]. Additionally, the branches can be observed when scalpel is removed during single portal ECTR. The normal BB (Berrettini branch) has been found away from the surgical area and is not subject to injury. The researcher could recommend that the hands and Berrettini branches, which were identified as group two, are the safest strategies to use when performing this surgical operation since the activity does not necessarily result in iatrogenic injuries and because also they have ligaments incisions that come from central section and have a section that extends to nearer and as well as away sections of the hand palm.

Another implication is that the digital pictures showing dissected palms can be analyzed to define the length and position of superficial connections involving both the ulnar and the median nerve [4]. When a specific coordinate having seven specified landmarks is used to define its position, the Berrettini communicating branches are observed to be located consistently. Therefore it becomes easy to identify a high-risk area in the palm. This helps in knowing the region of a high-risk zone and can be applied to evade the risk of iatrogenic nerve injury. The precaution is that an operation on the palm must be conducted moderately to have a clear vision. This practice also protects against the possible destruction of the surrounding and unusual structures.

2.4. Interventions and Possible Treatment

There are other cases where there is an application on steroid injections being used frequently to treat carpal tunnel syndrome [5]. This intervention has been described as safest with reduced risks. The nature of iatrogenic median nerve injury is rare but rarely known with well-identified complications. It happens due to neural injection between the corticosteroids and results in nerve pain and damage. The patient hardly experiences tingling, numbness or pain at the time of injection until 24 hours after injection. The use of steroid injection can influence suspecting carpal tunnel but in the acute form. This makes it important for the health practitioners to involve the patients in the discussion on the possible occurrence of acute CTS and thus mitigate the event of permanent nerve damage.

2.5. Patient’s Perspective after Treatment

Some patients believed that Berrettini affects them and is associated with painful neuroma formation or may be happening due to sensibility in the central figure’s middle ulnar side or radial side. The patients can comfortably feel pain relieved between 3 to 5 hours and thus able to operate a computer mouse and perfume their daily activities like eating and driving. The patients can also comfortably use the machine for several days but with some restrictions.

3. Conclusion

It’s good for health practitioners and patients to articulate the need to conduct a thorough medical analysis of the peripheral nerves. This should be done by relating and applying knowledge to electrodiagnostic studies. Also, the occurrence of unusual feelings and conditions should be used as hints, and an electrophysiologist should properly address the variations between the physical and historical data.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


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