The Relation between Effective Digital Program Governance and Program Success


This study elaborates on the relationship between digital program governance and program success. At the beginning of this study, the researchers established objectives to be analyzed with the study findings. The study was carried out based on quantitative aspects of the topic and the target audience for the study was approximately 40 participants as online study. The researcher analyses four main questions through the study, which mainly scope into a strategic viewpoint on implications and results of digital governance for a program, either digital or non-digital. Critical literature which was used in this study will be discussed through a detailed literature review on four main areas that will support the objectives of the study. The approach of the research is deductive where quantitative measures were considered as the primary data collection mode. Ten questions were presented to the selected audience focusing on the objectives of the study. The responses collected point toward proving that digital governance has a positive correlation with the success of a program.

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Khatib, M. , AlMaeeni, A. and Alkamali, W. (2022) The Relation between Effective Digital Program Governance and Program Success. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 12, 1402-1418. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2022.129078.

1. Introduction

1.1. Background of the Study

Digital program governance is the effective development of governmental practices in a digital manner. It helps to bring the mobile workforce better access taking a high-quality digital environment. There is also fostering over different services holding any devices. The governance practice is involved different principles, which mainly help to assure the new digital initiatives. Such functions are properly integrated, taking the organisation’s IT rules, capabilities or systems. So, the digital transformation brings the end-to-end process, where one is intertwined, taking the back-end business systems and processes (Linkov et al., 2018). Such fostering of developments takes the involvement of program success. There can be a different form of program success, which helps to welcome the new initiatives taking the course of action. It is fostered in different nations, where digital teams are able to bring better collaborations. There are technological silos holding different content strategies with different interactive agencies within the nation.

1.2. Rationale of the Study

The study is significant as there is much development in digital program governance. There are different nations that are coming with new digital content, design. It marks the possible impacts on the nation’s development in the technological spheres. The implication of digital governance gives the static model, which mainly provides the specific working sphere in the different technological fields. There is also enhancement of different levels of coordination along with sharing the digital initiatives. It marks proper development of line taking the specific culture or strategic priorities giving centralised control (Erkut, 2020). In the present sphere, digital program governance helps in leading the nation with major program success. It also helps to bring digital transformation holding the data-driven public sector functions.

1.3. Aim of the Study

The aim of the study includes understanding the better relationships between program governance and program success. The paper also helps to instigate different forces, leading their growth and holding the nation’s development. So, the paper helps to analyse about data-driven public sector giving major approaches and transformations.

1.4. Research question

The research questions include:

· What are the certain implications in drawing the digital program governance?

· How far the digital program governance seeks the program’s success in strategic forms?

· What are the specific relations between effective digital program governance and program success?

· How the digital governance gives effective enforcement to other program success?

1.5. Research Objective

By taking the research questions, the objectives include:

· To analyze implications in drawing the digital program governance

· To understanding, digital program governance seeks the program success in strategic forms

· To evaluate specific relations between effective digital program governance and program success

· To determine whether digital governance gives effective enforcement to other program success?

2. Literature Review

2.1. Digital Program Governance

For different nations, there is fostering of digital program governance practices. Such dynamics are quite aligning with the specific digital team taking the shared purposes and values. Digital governance involves better connecting with digital content and designing in better approaches. In different nations, it includes digital team leaders, proficient managers, along with a drawing of specific strategies. In the present scale, there involves an effective drawing of technology silos. As opined by Morze and Makhachashvili (2021), there is a clear drawing of digital governance marking consistent digital chaos. The Government is implied over holding the digital maturity curve marking the possible scope for different approaches. Here, the nation brings the core digital team in a distributed manner. In the digital program of governance, there are also includes working groups and councils, which can help to identify the extended digital team. Besides, for the digital program governance, there is the development of digital strategies, which aligns with the possible expertise and authorities. It can help to develop with better identification of the digital strategies decision-making process within the organisation (Ávila et al., 2019). It helps to bring out the effective digital policy, where the Government brings the effective policy steward along with best practices marking possible digital policies.

With the implications of digital governance, it helps to bring digital standards. The digital standards are mainly responsible for holding the making decisions and taking specific approaches. There is major concern over meeting the corporate governance dynamics, which marks a possible impact on the digital governance framework. Such governmental practices mainly imply with digital presence marking driving the design in different digital programs (Malhotra, 2018). Such factors and frameworks of governance mainly help to bring the new approaches and functions inappropriate manner. The policies help to bring the program management marking the effective decision-building marking the effective survival of complete digital transformation.

2.2. Role of Digital Program Governance over Program Success

Digital governance mainly helps in the establishment of lines of accountability. It includes specific roles along with clear decision-making authority taking the digital presence within the nation. The digital program governance includes different websites, social media outlets, the internet, along with different products and services to bring the digital upbringing within the governance scale. It is mainly promoted over the internet for managing the digital figures and functions. As stated by Malhotra (2018), the digital program governance is taken a right governmental practice, which helps to provide appropriate levels of coordination along with sharing the digital initiatives. The centralised governmental practice helps to bring the right control over the certain requirements, which are set by different nations to build up as the digital program approaches. There are permanent approaches by governments with the implications of digital transformation taking through every team or department. Such a process often requires an open-minded approach along with clear preparations to understand the data, technology and design better. It gives considered impact over different teams for the national developments. The digital team is involved with concerned approaches of setting the responsible approaches in development, testing or even implementing the specific strategies to reach or even engaging the targeted audiences through the medium of different digital channels (Polidi et al., 2019). The success of programs involves different projects to foster digital program governance. The projects mainly involve four different sectors, which include health, education, PDS and even posts. There is a mode of different projects with the different components holding the Mission Mode Projects developed by different ministries by the Governments.

Digital program governance is quite significant, taking the aspects over other program success. For instance, the UAE MARS mission is one of the program successes by the Emirates Government for holding the specific spacecraft by the nation. The Estonia E-Government is one of the practical examples of digital program governance in developing the effective citizen interactions by using the electronic solutions. It is mainly created with the release of several mobile applications marking possible impacts. Such digital reformations have set new reformations causing the spread of internet access. It is taken the initiative to build their position in a digital manner.

2.3. Impact of Program Success

The program’s success helps to bring the recognised aspects within the nation. It helps to bring the organisational structure along with links to the different programs or delivery of services. There are certain new implications of technologies, where the promises are held for improving the government’s effectiveness. There is also fostering of proper program management and transformation with the e-government implications (Dias & Gomes, 2019). The governing of digital initiatives gives insights over possible functions and brings maximum results. There is promotion of e-governance practices, which also align with the objectives taking different components. The Government program of action mainly reflects the strategic plan, which holds the medium-term strategic framework. There involves the different outcomes and fostering of projects taking different initiatives to address the different projects. For instance, the South e-Government functions help to develop programs for education, health, safety and security, economic growth and employment, skills along with infrastructure. The basic-to-basic programs are mainly devised over building and strengthening of capabilities, which brings accountability taking municipalities.

The digital transformation helps in bringing the new digital initiatives taking the random acts for the digital enablement. There is the involvement of new technologies brings digital approaches. Taking well-governed digital programs, it helps to satisfy the connected stakeholders. As stated by Westerberg (2021), such initiatives bring the flexible changes to the nation. It also brings the rigidity for holding the strategic alignment and efficiencies. It helps to relate with prioritising compliance along with mitigating the risk factors. The traditional governance approaches mark the effective executive to think about the governmental approaches marking significant digital transformations. By holding the digital governance, it helps to bring the centralise information building over digital initiatives helps the different nations to hold certain respondents are taking specific efforts (Decuypere & Lewis, 2021). For instance, in India, there is the development of digital concerns, changing the nation complete transforming the nation. It helped the nation to the digital empowering or society along with holding the knowledge about the economy. The programmer management structure is built with Digital India, which is consisted of effective monitoring of specific committees taking the digital changes. It has brought a large scale of change within the nation along with complete transformations. The performance of the nation is deployed over the digital changes, which proved to be elusive.

2.4. Building a Program Case

The topic of governance in the government sector has become an important and widely discussed point of interest in the project, program and portfolio management literature in the past decade. It eventually became the main focus in the view of policy makers as they sought to ensure success in the selection, design and implementation of government programs and their multiple projects. Because of the various complexities and risks underlying the context of project and program management, program governance establishes a critical strategic planning component, particularly in developing countries. Program governance is one of the challenges that must be implemented in many organizations. As government agencies continue to take on larger projects, implementation of program governance is essential for success. According to the Project Management Institute (PMI) definition of project governance, it is a process, framework, and functions that lead to project activities to complete a product or service that meets the objectives of the enterprise (Alie, 2015). What makes implementing program governance difficult is that it is not one-size-fits-all, and organizations need to adjust the framework based on their goals. Poor implementation of program governance can lead to various consequences such as delays, abuses, and even project failure, and various program elements such as scope, schedule, stakeholders, and decision-making processes are located, not to mention that there are many challenges facing entities when designing and implementing governance in their programs.

And here, the program manager needs to consider how much rigor they need to incorporate into the organization (Alie, 2015). If the governance model is strictly adhered to, stakeholders will be held responsible, while the opposite will result in non-participation of stakeholders. In addition to accountability, responsibilities and risk management, all of this reinforces the essence of proper preparation to avoid failure because projects affect programmes. Another element of program governance is the assurance (Alie, 2015). Program assurance is the effective management of risks and the identification of metrics to enhance program delivery. Some of these metrics include adherence to business status, the effectiveness of change control, risk analysis process, deviation control, quality assessment, and schedule accuracy tracking.

With regard to the specific challenges that governments face in designing and implementing program governance, one of them revolves around the principle that asset preservation and risk-taking must be in the right balance (Deloitte, 2013). Many factors must be considered when designing the governance structure when trying to bring the organizational culture back to the top and this is because governance must be aligned and appropriate to the culture. Otherwise, the inherent contradictions and conflicts will threaten any chance of success and here comes the most important elements that must be available in program management, alignment with the organization’s business strategy, delegation of duties, resource allocation, benefits management, consideration of organizational culture, quality of information, communication, stakeholder management, management Risks and Decision Making, Interrelationships between a Number of Projects and the Program (Mashiloane & Jokonya, 2018).

It is therefore advisable for organizations to invest in program management as it will help in setting up a better management system for programs and projects, by developing a program management mindset for performance so that benefits are not lost, designing a new program if needed, creating a link between program benefits and project deliverables, developing a compliance roadmap Continuous evaluations of governance operating models, policies, procedures and charters, preparation of governance models for annual reports, an independent evaluation of risk management.

2.5. Gap Analysis

There is some gap analysis in the literature review. At first, there can be drawing of different case study with relating to the research topic. Besides, the study must be considered with the nation’s transformations along with its performance scale.

3. Research Methods

3.1. Research Philosophy

The research philosophy mainly considers the specific ideas taking the styles in which the information is mainly developed. Such factors are often composed, properly used and even examined. The research philosophy can help to deal with nature, source and develop the research knowledge. For the specific research paper, post-positivism research philosophy is mainly focused on. The philosophy helps to bring independence to the researcher or research objectives (Cazeaux, 2017). It brings better access to the content of past research, taking specific values and knowledge in the research paper. By holding the post-positivism research, the researcher can be able to pursue better objectives along with considering the possible impacts of different biases.

3.2. Research Approach

The research approach is taken as the plan or process within the research paper. It is often included with different stages taking the broader suppositions taking the detailed means over the data congregation, interpretation and analysis. In the paper, there is the development of both deductive and inductive research approaches. The development of the deductive research approach, it can allow the researcher in represents the rules in an explicit manner and quick (Alase, 2017). There is also a selection of the inductive research approach, and it helps to bring the flexible to the researcher. The approaches of inductive and deductive approach have helped the researcher to mark the possible observations of the participations in the proper manner and develop the proper conclusion.

3.3. Research Design

The research design is mainly considered the arrangements over the collection and conditions. The research design helps to bring the setting of course or methods, which can be used for the data collection. It also helps examine the probable measures taking different variables, which is quite specific to the research problem. The research design adoption can help in allowing the researcher to find the answers relating to the research questions in a proper manner (Schoonenboom & Johnson, 2017). In the paper, there is a selection of descriptive research designs. It can bring permission to the researcher to observe the specific respondents over the study along with different participants in the study.

3.4. Data Collection Method

In the paper, there is determining of both primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary quantitative data collection process is developed among the different nations to understand the digital governance developments. The survey is done with the help of survey monkey in an online manner. Besides, the secondary data collection analysis is also developed within the study. The secondary data collection process there includes different scholars’ reviews, articles, journals and websites. Such a data collection process helps to bring the development research paper.

3.5. Data Analysis Techniques

The primary quantitative data collection is represented with bar graphs by using survey monkey. The respondent’s concerns are developed in different graphs. The rate of percentage is shown in the study, relating to the questions. The researcher has also collected secondary information by taking relevant journals, articles and books.

Population and sample size

In the survey respondents, there is the development of random selection tools. Besides, the responses are made among the 35 different people around the world to understand digital governance practices within the nations.

3.6. Ethical Consideration

The researcher is following the Data Protection Act 1998. It helps to ensure different facts, where the name of respondents has not been revealed. There is even no external force over the participants for taking part in the survey. Besides, there is proper bringing of study along with specific articles collection to determine the whole research paper (No, 2017).

4. Data analysis and Discussion

Primary Data Collection

Quantitative process

Analysis: In the survey response (Figure 1), there are different age groups who have participated in the survey. Most of the young people participated in the survey with the age group of around 18 - 25. They know the digital phase at the present scale corresponding to the nation. Even the age groups of 26 - 35 and 36 - 45 have probably also been involved with the survey. The age group of more than 45 does not participate in the survey.

Analysis: In the survey (Figure 2), there is inclusion of both the genders in the survey. Both males and females participated in the survey. Besides, females

Figure 1. Age.

have more participation than males. It can be analysed that females are also interested in digital governance practices. Both males and females have ideas about developing digital development within their nation. It brings a positive impact that they have a clear idea about the digital governance strategies and functions taking different functions.

Analysis: In the survey graph (Figure 3), there are considerations over digital governance, which have been integrated over the last 5 years within the nations. In the present scale of digitalization, most nations have developed digital governance practices. Digital governance has been implemented with 51.4 percent, while 42.56 still face that there is not development in the digital governance

Figure 2. Gender.

Figure 3. Digital governance integration since last 5 years.

holding the specific integrations. Besides, 5.27 percent are unknown about the facts.

Analysis: In the survey graphs (Figure 4), there is agreement over the facts taking the digital governance. It brings digital transformation holding the new capabilities. Most of the respondents have agreed that digital governance is quite effective and can bring complete transformation. Even some of the respondents have also agreed, while some have no idea about it. So, there are positive impacts with the delivery of digital governance.

Analysis: In the survey (Figure 5), the back-end business process or systems

Figure 4. Digital governance enable digital transformational new capabilities.

Figure 5. Back end business process and systems for the different research program.

are taken considered within the different research programs. In the responses, most of the responses think that back-end business processes and systems can help to bring effective research programs. While, 28 per cent think that there is no end business process and system taking the different programs. It brings the effective drawing of different functions.

Analysis: In the survey graphs (Figure 6), the government sharing of digital initiatives is taken over strategic priorities. It can help to change the extent of centralised control. Most of the respondents think it to be would be significant to hold digital initiatives. While again 17 percent of responses makes concern that governments do not share digital initiatives.

Analysis: In the graph (Figure 7), there is a drawing in relation to the digital transformation fosters taking the nation’s development. Here, around 66 percent of responses have agreed that digital transformation, which a mark fosters over the national development. Again, with 22 percent of respondents do not mark possible concern taking the digital transformation fosters holding the nation’s development.

Analysis: In the graph (Figure 8), there is correspondence over the digital transformation, which marks a focus on bringing the possible reliabilities taking a larger scale. Here around 74 percent makes strongly agree with the questions. While, some have also agreed and some have no idea about the digital transformation marking focus taking the specific bringing of reliability on a larger scale.

Analysis: In the graph (Figure 9), there is an analysis of the success fostered by taking digital transformation. In the survey respondents, around 68 percent of responses makes concern that program success helps in bringing the fosters aspects in holding the digital transformation. Some of them do not think it is

Figure 6. Government share digital initiatives taking strategic priorities.

Figure 7. Digital transformation fosters the nations’s development.

Figure 8. Digital transformation vs. larger scale reliability.

significant in bringing the effective scale of functions.

Analysis: In the survey graph (Figure 10), there is concern over digital transformations holding the ultimate drive of transformation in holding the nation’s operational model. Around 74 percent of responses strongly agreed with the facts. Even 20 percent of responses have agreed to the facts, while some have no ideas. Hence, it can help to bring the possible functions in right manner.

5. Research Limitations

Even though this research was conducted in a methodical and structured manner,

Figure 9. Program success fosters aspects of digital transformation.

Figure 10. Dogital transformation driving nations operating model.

there are unavoidable limitations. Therefore, the researcher would like to highlight the same as follows.

Time allocation for this study was approximately 4 months, which is a narrow time window to expedite. This is the reason the researcher was not able to reach out to all countries to evaluate the relation of digital governance with program success. Therefore, the researcher had to mainly focus on the Middle Eastern countries when selecting the research sample.

The researcher believes that this is a valid sample as the prioritized geography currently run a big digital portfolio. However, samples of approximately 40 respondents were selected and the results were generated to give the most significant picture of consumer buying behavior. According to the sample calculation selected, a sample size of 63 was recommended at a confidence level of 95%, if the research calculation was done at a 99% confidence level a sample size of 83 was required. Unfortunately, this sample size was not achieved in the study because to collect a sample of such magnitude, the researcher would have to spend nearly 6 to 7 months and incur an approximate cost of $ 0.1 million. Due to these challenges a sample size of 40 was selected.

Penultimately, the study questionnaire was distributed through an online platform). Such platforms are used by experts to carry out analysis and collect data. As an alternate option, the researcher could have printed the surveys and distributed among the participants. However, the printing and distribution method involves more cost and time from the researcher, which was not a privilege due to the narrow time window. However, through the online survey author was able to collect more accurate and reliable data within a shorter time.

As explained above, the study was mainly focused on middle eastern countries. Therefore, various other external and internal factors could drive and influence the relation of digital governance with program success in other geographies.

Even though the research was completed with the above limitations and challenges, recommendations for future studies are described in the following section.

6. Recommendations

As the next phase of the above study, phase 2 could be launched by considering more variables. This would facilitate generating answers from several other perspectives. Also, the second phase could be accommodated with a,

· A larger sample to assess the variables and more data will be available to the researcher to generate more realistic outcomes.

· The conceptual framework for this study was explained through a handful of factors. In the future study, the researcher could introduce a comprehensive conceptual framework with more drivers.

This study mainly focused on micro implications for digital governance.

· The future study could include macro factors such as political influence on projects and success of running projects digitally to improve transparency.

· The encouragement of strategic decision makers to empower digital change management with government institutes on socially essential services.

Therefore, there’s room to launch effective studies based on this to generate complete conclusions.

7. Findings

Before the main study, a pilot study was initiated for this research with considering a sample of 20 participants. This is 50% of the core sample size for the study. Participants didn’t find challenges in responding to the questionnaire even though the questionnaire was developed based on previous studies. Considering the results of the pilot study and feedback from participants. The questionnaire was finalized and confirmed.

By conducting both primary and secondary data collection processes, also a core and preliminary study, it’s evident that digital transformation is a pillar of success when building a nation. As commented by Abdurakhmanova et al. (2020), there are different nations that have to build their digital governance practices and it has now been reformed with new stages. There is more delivery of functions to upgrade the nation’s development around the world. Digital governance helps in bringing the digital transformation holding new capabilities in a specific manner. Besides, there is more delivery of approaches in bringing the new scale of functions taking different research programs. The success of programs has been integrated in a specific manner, meeting the new concerns of fostering more extensions of centralized control. The governments are involved in the proper manner to drive the right scale of functions along with the centralized control. It is quite related to the nation’s development in the right scale of development along with nation’s performance.

In reference to the 10 questions provided to the audience, it’s evident that both the male and female population in the age range of 18 - 25 believes that digital governance will be a benefactor in driving digital transformation in a nation. Also, with the results, it could be elaborated that digital governance empowers a centralized approach to digital transformation and encourage business processes to be re-looked at from a business process re-engineering point of view.

8. Conclusion

As per the above analysis done on correlation and regression, the author concludes that all independent variables and the dependent variable are associated and have a relationship with each other. Therefore, the hypotheses are accepted. Hence, the author identifies the true association and makes the appropriate decisions according to the outcome of the analysis.

Hence, by holding the whole research paper, there is more determination over the development of digital governance practices. It can help to meet the new success of programs in the right manner along with delivering the functions. The drawing of primary and secondary data collection processes can help to determine the research objectives. The researcher is even able to get the answers to research questions. The paper mainly resists building the development of new trends, which is undertaken with specific efforts in an elusive manner. It is the success figures where the nation can also be able to change the determining over digital changes marking over the business. The development of different programs can help to relate to new ages and new changes. It brings the gains along with possible results over the nation along with its development taking different features along with program developments and success.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


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