The Relation between Emotional Intelligence Training and Job Satisfaction—Case Study
—In the United Arab Emirates


Introduction: Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction are of particular importance in the workplace environment, The aim of this research is to investigate, the impact of emotional intelligence training on job satisfaction in an education firm located in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results can help organizations realize human capabilities and the way to improve them by providing more attention to the human aspect. Purpose: The purpose of the research is to investigate the relationship between Emotional Intelligence Training and job satisfaction. Design/Methodology/Approach: Mixed methods case study was done on fifty employees from one single company, who were selected based on their low Job satisfaction rate according to the yearly satisfaction questionnaire done by their company. All fifty employees attended Emotional Intelligence training for five days with a total of forty training hours. After three months of completing the training, the employees undergo a satisfaction survey to assess the impact of the training. Analyses were done using SPSS to examine the correlation and the impact of Emotional Intelligence (EI) Training and Job Satisfaction (JS). Finding: Emotional Intelligence Training Positively Impacts the Job Satisfaction (JS). Practical Implications: Emotional Intelligence training will be beneficial to be utilized by the company and human resource management team to foster employees’ EI which will increase job satisfaction.

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Soliman, R. (2022) The Relation between Emotional Intelligence Training and Job Satisfaction—Case Study
—In the United Arab Emirates. Open Journal of Business and Management, 10, 1834-1852. doi: 10.4236/ojbm.2022.104094.

1. Introduction and Background

The research will be structured as follow: Starting with an introduction and background, highlighting the research aim and importance of the study, followed by a critical analysis of the existing Literature review for the two variables (Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction). The researcher will then explain the used methodology and share the finding and limitations. Lastly, the Conclusion and recommendation will be presented.

1.1. Introduction

A couple of decades back emotions were considered irrelevant or inappropriate for the workplace, Thanks to great researchers that is not the case today. Emotional Intelligence (EI) currently is introduced as a critical success factor not only at the workplace but in life. In today’s world, organizations consider Emotional Intelligence (EI) as one of the core competencies of high performers and the primary driver for lots of behavior such as employee satisfaction.

1.2. The Importance of the Study

The importance of this study stems from the fact that it deals with a modern and important concept which is emotional intelligence. The concept has received the interest of researchers in the field of psychology and management together for its importance and its impact on many behaviors in human day-to-day activities. It matters for the staff and workers in particular and is one of the key indicators to assume the capabilities. Exploring the relationship between emotional intelligence and the variables of the current study (satisfaction) helps to understand the nature of this concept and achieve the overall objectives of the organization through the outcome of this research findings and recommendations. The outcome of the study will contribute to the development and draw the attention of staff to raise the level of emotional intelligence they have. Moreover, the study of levels of emotional intelligence and satisfaction of employees helps leaders and managers create a positive organizational climate and environment, which helps and motivates staff to perform better and with higher productivity. The environment will help to mobilize staff efforts and aim to achieve the goals of the organization and increase staff satisfaction levels. The study will help motivate employees to take greater responsibility for the work and greater effort as well as greater sacrifices to achieve better levels of satisfaction, thereby contributing more effectively to the overall objectives of the organizations.

1.3. Aims and Goals

The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between Emotional Intelligence Training and Job Satisfaction (JS). The study will explore whether there is an impact of Emotional Intelligence Training on Job Satisfaction or not. This study will contribute to both Literature and practice as follows:

Literature: Most of the research on Emotion Intelligence was done in North America and Europe. This study worked on the sample from The Middle East and one of the conservative Arab Country which is the United Arab Emirates.

Practice: The current study shows the impact of Emotional Intelligence Training on Job Satisfaction which consider the main factor in an organization’s success.

Researchers suggested that Emotional Intelligence training done by companies will not only enhance job satisfaction, it will also affect personal lives and will improve the mental health, physical and overall well-being of the individual and the whole society (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008).

1.4. Rationale of the Study

Several studies were done on Emotional Intelligence across Europe and North America. However, in this part of the world “The Arab and Middle Eastern”, people cannot express their own emotions freely. The known norms and traditions determine the definitions of emotions and to what extent they must be controlled, especially what type of emotions should be open and expressed differ a lot across cultures (Matsumoto, 1989). That is why the training of Emotional Intelligence in UAE, and this study will be value-added to the regain on both the Literature and the practice side. A review of the literature revealed that insufficient research exists regarding EI training and job satisfaction; therefore, this study is vital.

1.5. The Research Question

Research questions are the keys that help in planning and conducting a research project successfully (Robson & McCartan, 2016). The question that the study will answer is regarding the relationship between Emotional Intelligence training and Job satisfaction.

The main Hypotheses that the study was trying to answer are:

H1: There is a Positive relation between emotional intelligence training and Job satisfaction.

H2: There is a Negative relation between emotional intelligence training and Job satisfaction.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Introduction

A few years ago, emotions were seen as off-Subject and Unsuitable for the workplace, however, that is not the case today because of the demanding work of the researchers who proved the opposite. Emotional intelligence (EI) is seen as a new concept with enormous potential of growing in the area of social studies, it took the attention of the common people, the business world, and the scientific environment. The idea matches our time emphasizing the significance of self-awareness and understanding, clarifying the sense of the unevenness between intellect and emotion in the life of the collective mind. Emotional intelligence has a connection with multimale new zones of psychological science, including the neuroscience of emotion, self-regulation concepts, studies of metacognition, and the search for human cognitive abilities beyond “traditional” academic intelligence. (EI) currently is considered as one of the crucial elements for achievement in the workplace as well as in everyday life. Nowadays, many businesses see (EI) as a major core competency for individuals who have a high-performance level and the main factor that plays role in staff behavior such as employee satisfaction. The coming part will critically review what the literature has said regarding the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Job Satisfaction (JS).

2.2. Emotional Intelligence

2.2.1. Definition of Emotional Intelligence

Several literatures shared that researchers have represented a multiple and different definitions for the Emotional Intelligence, One of the first definitions is Thorndike and Stein (1937) when they presented a simple definition for the Emotional Intelligence, they defined it as “the ability to understand and manage people” (Wolfe & Kim, 2013). This definition is fundamental when it compares to what Goleman introduces. Emotional Intelligence becomes very known by the majority for the first time from Goleman (1995). Goleman refers to Emotional Intelligence as “the capacity for recognizing our feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and our relationships” as cited by (Beigi & Shirmohammadi, 2011). According to literatures the most used and known definition for the Emotional Intelligence in acadmia is the Mayer and Salovey (1997) definition of Emotional Intelligence. As they consider Emotional Intelligence is “the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions to assist thoughts, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Lee & Ok, 2012). Salovey’s indicated that they use the term Emotional Intelligence to refer to the ideational procedure involved in the realization, use, understanding, and management of one’s own and others’ emotional states to problem resolution and adjust behaviour (Brackett et al., 2006).

2.2.2. Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace

Various works of literature hypothesized that Emotional Intelligence affects the success with which worker behave with their teammate, the process they utilize to manage and resolve conflict, stress, overload and overall job performance (Brackett, Rivers, & Salovey, 2011). According to (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017) staff with higher Emotional Intelligence (EI) are capable of understanding and controlling their emotions to reach the best workplace results. Miao, Humphrey, & Qian (2016) explained that staff is able to use their own emotional intelligence to enhance their job satisfaction level since EI Help in experiencing more positive feeling at work.

Goleman (1998) suggested that emotional intelligence can help in reaching adaptive and productive behavior inside the organization. Goleman explained the significance of emotional competency for all the different management layers as such in the adaptability spectrum of frontline staff; emotional intelligence can act a particularly significant role in adaptability inside the organizations.

2.2.3. The Concept of Emotional Intelligence

Literature suggested several models for the Emotional Intelligence, Some Models are new others are old, couple is validated, and few are not. In the next few lines will evaluate the Major categories/Model.

There are two major categories of emotional intelligence theories. They are known as 1) the ability model and 2) mixed model approaches. The first model (the ability) focuses on a specific capacity which is how to perceive or utilize emotion (Oatley, 2004). Meanwhile, the Mixed-model includes the overall explanation of EI including abilities, behaviors, and personality trait (Goleman, 1998). The approach of Mayer et al. (2000) is seen by most researchers and academic reviews to match the needed level to be rewarded as a real method of intelligence (Cartwright & Pappas, 2008). According to Daus and Ashkanasy (2005), the evidence has been given to fulfil the three main categories that reflect “intelligence”. These criteria are: The abilities are capable of being operationalized, inter-correlated and related to pre-existing intelligence, meanwhile showing the difference and finally that the intelligence shows developmental effects with age. The Mixed Model was proposed by (Bar-On, 1997) and (Goleman, 1998). They both argue that non-cognitive abilities consist of five broad categories and sub-categories as follows: self-actualization and independence, empathy and social responsibility, reality testing and problem-solving, stress tolerance and impulse control, and characteristics such as optimism and happiness.

Figure 1 below provides a comparison of Mixed vs. Ability Models of Emotional Intelligence (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2004).

2.2.4. Emotional Intelligence Measures

Works of the literature indicated that there are several Emotional Intelligence measures; Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I; Bar-On, 1997) Is considered as one of the early emotional intelligence measures. In this tool the total items that examining are one hundred and thirty-three items, the results are calculated to include the sum count as well as total of fifty other items on five composite scales. The main points that are measured in the inventory are, Emotional self-awareness, empathy, interpersonal relationship, Stress Management tolerance and impulse control are part of the scale component. The validity and reliability of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory were confirmed by researchers (Dawda & Hart, 2000). It was found by researchers that there is a correlation with the ability-based emotional intelligence test (i.e., MSCEIT). However, other researchers think that the Bar-On EQ-I is not a measure of cognitive ability, but they consider it as measure of personality traits (Connor & Little, 2003) Another emotional intelligence measure is the Multi-factor Emotional

Figure 1. Comparison of mixed vs. ability models of emotional intelligence (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2004).

Intelligence Scale MEIS (Oatley, 2004). The assessment consists of four branches, including Emotional Identification, Assimilating Emotions, Understanding Emotions and Managing Emotions. The scale was revisited and updated later on to Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and it utilized “experts” for the achieving criteria and to lower the number of items. In the current style, the MSCEIT V2 involves a sum of 141 items and eight subscales (two for each of the four branches). Few studies were done to evaluate the validity of the instrument (Fan, Jackson, Yang, Tang, & Zhang, 2010; Palmer, Gignac, Manocha, & Stough, 2005; Rossen, Kranzler, & Algina, 2008) as cited in (Wolfe & Kim, 2013). A more commonly used instrument and Famous tool and popular self-report EI instrument are the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS; Wong & Law, 2002) the reason is that the tool relies on the revised four-branch ability EI model (i.e. self-emotion appraisal, others’ emotion appraisal, use of emotion, and regulation of emotion) of Mayer and Salovey (1997) for measuring individuals’ self-perceptions about EI (Libbrecht et al., 2014). Wong and Law (2002) developed this tool. The (WLEIS) measurement has a four-factor model with sixteen items. Wong and Law (2002) developed the scale to explore the role of emotions in the workplace. There will be the measurement tool that will be used in this study.

2.2.5. Emotional Intelligence Training

The demand for Emotional Intelligence training has increased rabidly in many occupations and organizations specializing in the human service sectors (Carrothers, Gregory, & Gallagher, 2000; Lewis, Ress, & Hudson, 2004) as per (Clarke, 2006). The inquiry of whether EI as skill can be trained and developed for adults has been of great interest ever since the concept was announced in 1995 by Goleman. However, after reviewing the literature, it was found that several researches were done and explored the inquiry. Out of seven cases related to emotional intelligence training, two have utilized the “ability model”, one used the “mixed model”, and whist four cases relied on the “competency model”. Several studies were done to explore if the EI can be developed via training. Clarke (2010) utilized the ability model to explore the impact of EI training program that happened for two-day on a group of fifty-three managers in The United Kingdom. The study used the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT V2.0) as a measure (Mayer et al., 2002). In six months, it was found that out of four abilities two were developed significantly after the training. The conclusion of Clarke (2010) indicates that the development of EI abilities happens, however, it does not happen immediately after the training program, but over a period of time. Another study by Groves et al. (2008) investigated the impact of an eleven-week leadership development program and in the conclusion, it was mentioned that training has affected EI abilities positively. Slaski and Cartwright (2003) used the mixed model of EI on sixty managers, the results showed that EI has improved by training. Different studies showed that EI training was highly efficient in decreasing stress and enhancing health, morale, and well-being (Beigi & Shirmohammadi, 2011)

2.3. Job Satisfaction

No one can say otherwise; job satisfaction is an old concept. One of the first people who spoke about the old concept is Roethlisberger and Dickson when they issued their book Management and the Worker and Hoppoek’s monograph on Job Satisfaction in the 1930s (Locke, 1969). Lots of studies and research on Job Satisfaction have been developed; it is very noticeable that till the current time lots of researchers are still looking deeper into this topic (Haile, 2009).

2.3.1. What Is Job Satisfaction

Researcher has been exploring the concept from different perspective, for example, Schneider and Snyder (1975) consider it as a personal appraisal of a situation due to job/work or feedback that arise as a result of having a job that guarantees income and security. Spector and Fox (2002) defined Job Satisfaction as “how employees feel about their work, which may be negative or positive” (Brunetto et al., 2012). His definition sees that work alone is the sole factor for satisfaction while ignoring all other factors such as pay and security (Schneider & Snyder, 1975). According to Simatwa (2011) Job satisfaction is a tool that has a positive relation to the extent to which one’s own needs are satisfied in the job situation. Kuria (2011) argues that staff becomes satisfied and highly productive when their job offers them security from economic strain, recognition of their effort, clean policy of grievances, opportunity to contribute ideas and suggestions, participation in decision making and managing the affairs. Job satisfaction means satisfactory state comes from the feelings from results achieved and performance of work (Simatwa, 2011). One of the very simple and easy difinition for Job satisfaction is that how employees feel satisfaction toward his/her work, to which level the employee likes his/her work, and the feeling s/he has about the job (Antoncic & Antoncic, 2011).

2.3.2. The Importance of the Job Satisfaction

According to (Odembo, 2013), job satisfaction ensures that the staff are hired and kept the companies, and it keeps the productivity level high by keeping the employees busy and engaged all the time. It has been validated that job satisfaction minimizes the ill impact in case of any conflicts and job-induced stress thus lowering the employee turnover rate for great employees. Job satisfaction is significant element in organizational psychology that influences behaviors of the staff toward the organizations (Schleicher et al., 2011). Employee satisfaction is the degree to which staff feels self-power and fulfilled in their position (Locke, 1969).

2.3.3. Effect of Talent Development on Job Satisfaction

According to Woodruffe (1999), when an organization looks to enhance the relation and strength of its bond with the staff, they should invest in human resource development this investment helps in creating new opportunities for career advancement inside the organization and enhancing the individual skills that let employees improve their employability on the internal and the external labour market. As mentioned by Sikowo et al. (2016). Meyer & Smith (2009) argue that organizations will maintain better retention results by increasing training and development. The companies that offer training and educational programs to the employees have a competitive edge and stay more productive. Those companies will win the loyalty of their staff. Robert Half International Inc. conducted a study that explores the reason behind leaving work. The results showed that more often people do not leave because of the finances; however, they leave for advanced career opportunities and development, career development essential factor for both the organization and individual. Both parties are benefiting from the developments, and they are both enjoying great outcomes (Wright et al., 2005). It is an effective way to lowers the turnover rate and to retain the staff. Ongori & Agolla (2008) stated that lack of opportunities to gain experience in workplace results in career plateau which led to increased workforce intentions to leave their jobs.

2.3.4. Job Satisfaction Measures

Long ago many scales have been developed and used to use in measuring job satisfaction. These scales like The MSQ (Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire) (Weiss et al., 1967), The Need Satisfaction Questionnaire (Porter, 1961), and the Job Diagnostic Survey (Hackman & Oldham 1975). The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) developed by Weiss et al. (1967) was used to measure job satisfaction levels (Munir & Khatoon, 2015). One of the popular measures was created by Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969): The Job Descriptive Index (or JDI). JDI is a cognitive measure that concentrates on five facets (work, pay, promotion, supervision, and coworkers). However, as Brief and Weiss refer to, employee satisfaction is defined in positive terminologies, However only the cognitive aspects are measured (Kasvi, 2017). The MSQ questionnaire has the pros of measuring two distinct components Intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction (Weiss et al., 1967; Hirschfield, 2000; Buitendach & Rothman, 2009). Intrinsic job satisfaction reflects how individuals feel about the nature of the job tasks themselves, whereas extrinsic job satisfaction reflects how people feel about the task outside the work itself (Spector, 1977; Herzberg & Howe, 1959) as cited in (Service, 2016).

2.4. Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction

Grewal, Brackett and Salovey (2006) indicated that there may be an impact on job satisfaction in regard to Emotional Intelligence. Looking at the individual level, being emotionally aware and following regulatory processes linked to Emotional Intelligence that will enhance the social relationships of the individual. Intrapersonal, use of emotion and being aware of the own feelings may help in maintaining some kind of control and lowering the stress level as well as the negative emotion that plays a role in increasing the satisfaction level at the workplace. (Çekmecelioğlu, Günsel, & Ulutaş, 2012) different researchers who conducted empirical research such as Kafetsios and Zampetakis (2008) as well as researchers cited below who investigated the relationships between Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction has noticed and documented a mixed finding. Few old studies have suggested a weak to the modest relationship between EI and Job Satisfaction (i.e., EQi, Carmeli, 2003; Kafetsios & Loumakou, 2007; a Greek trait EI scale, Vacola, Tsaousis, & Nikolaou, 2004). However, a more recent study by (Sy et al., 2006) suggested a positive relation. This study made effective utilisation using the ability-based scale (Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, WLEIS; Wong & Law, 2002). And Lopes et al. (2006) found links between EI abilities and Job Satisfaction measured via self and supervisor reports (Kafetsios & Zampetakis, 2008). As mentioned, recent studies and research on the link and the relation are positive.

3. Methodology and Methods

3.1. Introduction

The chapter focuses on the following sub-sections: Research Approach, Methodology, Design, Target Population, Sampling Technique, Data Collection Procedure and Research Procedure.

3.2. Research Approach/Methodology

One of the vital and essential dimensions in the research cycle is the choice of philosophy, approach, and methodology. While determining the best methodology, the researchers’ minds get opened to endless possibilities, which can lead to an enrichment of their research skills and an enhancement in their confidence that they are using the appropriate methodology. There are a few questions that each researcher should think about, Central to the questions of how to research? What to research? Is the researcher’s perspective on Why research? This perspective is based on the researcher’s assumptions concerning the inter-related concepts of ontology (reality), epistemology (Knowledge), and human nature (predetermined or not). The Epistemology positivism, the mixed approach was chosen by the researcher as a method, it focuses on collecting, analyzing, and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or series of studies. The use of quantitative and qualitative approaches, in combination, provides a better understanding of research problems than either approach alone. The use of one kind of data as a resource may not be enough; initial results need to be further explained. A second method is needed to enhance a primary method and since the project has multi-phases (Creswell & Plano, 2011).

3.3. Research Design

Descriptive research design was utilized to examine the relationship between two variables “Emotional Intelligence training” which is the dependent variable in this study and the independent variables “Job Satisfaction”. And Explore any relation between these variables. According to Mugenda & Mugenda (2003), the descriptive survey design aid in gathering, summarizing, presenting, and interpreting information to reach more clarification. The researcher used the survey in the study. And the survey was proposed because it allows the collection of a large amount of data in a timely and economical manner. The method is also perceived as authoritative by people in general and is both comparatively easy to explain and to easy to understand.

3.4. Participants and Sampling

The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the mutual relationships between emotional intelligence training and job satisfaction. In this case study, the sample consisted of fifty employees who worked full-time for an Education Firm in Abu Dhabi—United Arab Emirates. It is a representative sample for Total Population Sampling utilized; all participants were company employees who were extremely dissatisfied.

The fifty employees represent all of the population who were extremely dissatisfied according to the survey results. Since the study investigate the impact of Emotional Intelligence training on Job Satisfaction level, the participant was chosen to see if their satisfaction level will increase after attending Emotional Intelligence training (Male, n = 22; female, n = 28).

3.5. Data Collection and Procedure

Data collection was done through both primary and secondary resources. In secondary data, information relates to a past period which is last year’s satisfaction survey score. Secondary data saves time; one disadvantage here is that the data collected before cannot be checked so its reliability may be questioned. Primary data was used by obtaining direct information from the participants for Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction. The primary data was collected through a structured survey. All constructs were measured with existing scales. Questionnaire was driven to the employees who were chosen each participant received a cover letter that introduce and explained the research topic to avoid any unclear or misunderstand the participants may think about or have about the study. After collecting data from the participants through the questionnaire, data were edited and checked for completeness. The next step did involve coding the responses by transcribing the data from questionnaire by assigning characters symbols (numerical symbols), then after this data was entered to SPSS and NVIVO for analysis.

3.6. Validity and Reliability

Patton (2002) states that validity and reliability are the two elements that researchers must be concerned about during the research design process and while analyzing outcomes and judging the quality of the research.

3.7. Measures

Phase 1—The Training

Pre-assessment for the Emotional Intelligence before the Training, Then EI training program took place. It has been created intentionally for this study, in order to help staff in understanding their emotional interaction and others’ emotions accurately and efficiently. The program consisted of three stages: 1) exploring pre-training; 2) designing and implication training; 3) evaluation post-training.

Phase 2—Emotional Intelligence

The study utilized a validated scale to operationalize the constructs in the path model, all of which are reflective measures, the two factors of emotional intelligence 1) emotional recognition and 2) emotional regulation are measured using the emotional intelligence scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). EI was operationalized using Wong and Law’s (2002) EI scale.

Phase 3—Job Satisfaction

The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) was used in this study to gather data about job satisfaction of the participant. The MSQ short form consists of twenty items and uses 5-point Likert scale response format (Spector, 1977; Buitendach & Rothmann, 2009).

3.8. Data Analysis

According to Sarantakos (1998), the analysis of data is a crucial step as it gives chance to organize data collected during the study in order to assess and evaluate the findings and to arrive at valid, reasonable, and relevant conclusion.

The study used the Triangulation method for analyzing the data, presenting, and summarizing the outcomes (Table 1, Table 2).

3.9. Ethical Issues

Ethical issues arise at a variety of stages in business and management research, when it comes to dealing with human participants, research projects should rigorously follow ethical considerations (Cohen et al., 2007). The researcher completed the Ethical approval form before starting the study and obtained the needed approval. The research leader and the research team wrote a positionality statement to prove that they have been self-aware, and overcome their own biases, were more objective rather than subjective, to eliminate any assumptions and perceptions and definitely, I will allow them to include a reflexivity part to express their own thoughts and viewpoints. In either case Insider or outsider and followed an ethical framework from the moment started working on research topic, research design, research question, data collection, evaluating data, writing up and putting my final conclusion.

Table 1. Pearson’s product-moment correlation (r) between the emotional intelligence and job satisfaction among the heads of secondary schools.

**Correlation is significant at 0.01 level (two-tailed). Correlation Strength: 0.01 ≤ r ≤ 0.29 = Weak; 0.30 ≤ r ≤ 0.69 = Moderate; r ≥ 0.70 = Strong.

Table 2. Participants’ demographic characteristics.

4. Results and Finding

The study was done on fifty employees with lower satisfaction score and the main aim of the study was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence training and job satisfaction.

The main Hypotheses that the study was trying to answer are:

H1: There is a Positive relation between emotional intelligence training and Job satisfaction.

H2: There is a Negative relation between emotional intelligence training and Job satisfaction.

Table 3 depicts the “r” value as 0.966 and it can be interpreted as positive very high correlation between the variables. The t-value calculated is 53.62, which is significant at 0.01 level.

Hence we can conclude that there is a significant relationship between Job Satisfaction and Emotion Intelligence among the employees of the firm. So the null hypothesis is rejected.

Table 3. Data and results of coefficient of Correlation between Job Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence and t-test for Significance:

Based on the triangulation analysis, the Two variables are positively correlated. EI was positively correlated with job satisfaction. These findings provide support for H1.

The above finding matches the literatures that suggested the same results. Çekmecelioğlu, Günsel, & Ulutaş (2012) have found the same results when conducting a study about the Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study on Call Center Employees. Also Miao, Humphrey, & Qian (2017) conducted a study about a meta-analysis of emotional intelligence effects on job satisfaction mediated by job resources, and a test of moderators.

5. Discussion and Limitations

5.1. Discussion

It was almost twenty years ago when Goleman (1995) suggested that EI is essential for success in organizations. The present research addressed these issues and suggested a positive relationship between EI and job satisfaction. It was found significant correlations between job satisfaction and EI. These results provide evidence in support of the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction. Out of the fifty employees that entered this study as participants and they had low satisfaction score, and after going through emotional intelligence training for almost forty hours they were given job satisfaction questionnaires and they achieved a high satisfaction score. The results indicate a strong relationship between emotional intelligence training and job satisfaction.

5.2. Limitations

The results of this study must be interpreted with caution, as the data were collected from the employees of a single company and only fifty employees. There is a limitation since the population represents one company’s culture. More studies with other companies should be conducted to see if the predictors of satisfaction and tenure are similar. Because of the small sample, it should be also noted that only large effects were detected significantly. In the future, larger-scale studies (with more participants) are recommended to validate the findings of this study and also possibly to detect meaningful, yet smaller effects.

6. Conclusion and Recommendations

Emotional intelligence is intricately linked with major workplace aspects workplace. Hence, it is imperative to emphasize those practices which subsidize to promote emotional intelligence and commitment among all employees. In the recruitment process, preference should be given to those who are more emotionally intelligent. To boost the level of emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of employees, workshops, seminars, and conferences should be held.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


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