Share This Article:

The Reality of Pioneering Education in the Institutions of Higher Education in Derna City

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105135    101 Downloads   185 Views  

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify the reality of pioneering education in the in-stitutions of higher education in the city of Derna from the point of view of faculty members by measuring the quality of educational buildings, meas-uring the quality of the content of the curriculum, measuring the quality of the evaluation system and measuring the extent to which the courses con-tained leadership qualities. The nature of the relationship between the level of pioneering education and its relation to some demographic variables of the faculty members were represented in: gender, age, academic qualification, degree, duration of service. To achieve the objectives of the study following the study descriptive analytical method, the researcher developed a questionnaire, and the credibility and the coefficient of stability were verified. The population of the study was represented by the faculty of Omar Al-Mukhtar University, which had 193 members. The sample size was based on the Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table. The size of the sample was 127 members. And after the distribution of the questionnaire was retrieved (103) form valid for statistical analysis. To analyze the study data, the use of computers and the use of statistical program from the software service were contained in (SPSS). The study revealed that the general level of pilot education with its four components was average. The study also showed that the level of the following components: quality of the educational buildings, quality of the contents of the study programs, measurement of the quality of the evaluation system, For leadership traits were moderate, the quality component of the evaluation system was high. The study also found that there are no significant differences in the mean of the leading education due to the demographic variables under study at the level of significance of 5% except for the gender variable in favor of males. Finally, the study presented a set of recommendations that are hoped to promote and strengthen the pioneering education of the university under study.

1. Introduction

The education for Entrepreneurship aims to create a mentality and an entrepreneurial culture that embraces innovation, problem solving and active citizenship, where individuals are believed to be able to succeed in whatever they choose. The goal of entrepreneurship education is to help young people to become innovative and active participants in the labor market. Leadership is taught through a variety of different experiences that provide students with the ability and vision to take advantage of different opportunities. It aims to increase the ability of individuals to anticipate and respond to social changes and encourage them to develop themselves and take initiatives and take responsibility and risk. Every learner will not be entrepreneurial, but the acquired skills, especially the process, will contribute to raising their personal abilities and increasing their employability and citizenship.

Pioneering education is an effective strategy to deal with demographic pressures and reduce unemployment among young people, providing them with the knowledge and competencies that enable them to face social and economic challenges and changes throughout their lives. Leadership education promotes opportunities for human development and social justice in vulnerable communities. Education for leadership is expected to help engage in decent income-generating activities that can lead them to overcome poverty problems and to find sustainable and sustainable livelihoods that can only be achieved by learning leadership (synthesis report) 2012 [1] : The Education Project for Entrepreneurship in Arab Countries.

Based on the above, this study comes in an attempt to identify the reality of pioneering education in higher education institutions in the city of Derna from the point of view of the teaching staff members by measuring the content of the study programs, measuring the evaluation system and measuring the extent to which the courses contain leadership qualities, and presenting a set of proposals that may contribute to teaching leadership and learning leadership in Libya.

2. The Problem of the Study

If we want to progress towards leadership in the field of higher education we have a genuine desire to develop the system of higher education and work to raise the level of civilization of our communities and individuals, by building a modern education system of modern and highly effective because the future of the nation and progress and based on The quality and effectiveness of the education system, as well as the standards associated with the education system that indicate the progress and advancement of nations, illiteracy rates, per capita reading rate, size of publishing market, number of registered inventions, universities and annual research.

Therefore, higher education institutions must strive to provide students with the skills of learning, modern education and creativity, and to seek to create positive interaction between the learner and the sources of learning, the participation of learners and the exploitation of rich interaction opportunities among learners in all activities. A qualitative shift is needed to improve the performance of higher education and its interaction with the surrounding society. The primary goal of the higher education system should be to create enlightened and productive citizens and to enrich curricula with programs that are in line with the economic and industrial renaissance And focus on the composition of competencies and expertise contribute to nation-building and progress of the economy and the foundation to build a knowledge-based economy, because education is the most important pillars, the successful global competitive economy thrives and grows and continues to support if the capabilities of the educated workforce. Based on the above, the problem of the study reveals the following main question:

- What is the reality of pioneering education in higher education institutions in the city of Derna from the point of view of teaching staff members through the following dimensions: Measuring the content of study programs, measuring the evaluation system, measuring the extent to which the courses contain leadership traits?

- Are there statistically significant differences between the responses of the sample of the study on the reality of the leading education in the institutions of higher education in the city of Derna according to some personal variables: gender, age, educational level, degree, duration of service?

3. Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study aim to identify the following points:

・ Recognize the reality of pioneering education in the institutions of higher education in the city of Derna from the point of view of the members of the teaching staff through the following dimensions: measuring the content of the curriculum, measuring the evaluation system, measuring the extent to which the courses contain the qualities of leadership?

・ To identify whether there are statistically significant differences between the responses of the sample of the study on the reality of the leading education in the institutions of higher education in the city of Derna according to some personal variables: gender, age, educational level, degree, duration of service.

・ Provide some recommendations and proposals that are hoped to be followed to raise the level of education in the leading institutions of higher education under study.

4. The Significance of the Study: The Importance of This Study Is as Follows

・ This study derives its importance from the importance of entrepreneurship, which is one of the most important topics in the field of business administration, especially for organizations that need to adopt modern management methods to lead them. This led the researcher to address such rare subject in Libyan studies and researches―The researcher, especially the Libyan universities, seeks to establish several conferences, workshops and other programs to improve their performance through the implementation of pioneering education, which requires a lot of efforts to apply it in the Libyan universities such as Omar Al-Mukhtar University.

・ This study draws on its importance as the preliminary study in the Libyan environment, which attempts to identify the reality of pioneering education in higher education institutions in Derna from the point of view of faculty members through the following dimensions: Measuring the content of study programs, measuring the evaluation system, to the knowledge of the researcher.

・ The importance of this study is highlighted by enriching the scientific knowledge of this type of studies in the field of social and human sciences, and the field of educational sciences in particular.

・ Open areas of scientific research in this field, through the information provided by this study that will help researchers and scholars.

5. The Hypotheses of the Study: Based on the Problem of the Study and the Objectives, the Main Study Hypothesis Was Formulated as Follows

Zero Hypothesis 0H: There are no statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the following demographic variables: gender, age, academic qualification, degree, duration of service with members of the teaching staff at the University of Omar Mukhtar Darnah Branch.

Alternative Hypothesis H1: There are statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the following demographic variables: gender, age, academic qualification, degree, duration of service with members of the teaching staff at Omar Al Mukhtar University, Darnah Branch.

6. Limitation of the Study

1) Objective: This study examined the status of the leading education in higher education institutions in the city of Derna from the point of view of the faculty members through the following dimensions: measuring the content of the study programs, measuring the evaluation system, measuring the extent to which the courses contain leadership traits.

2) Spatial limits: This study was limited to the members of the Libyan teaching staff at the University of Omar Mukhtar onlyat Derna branch.

3) Temporal limits: This study was conducted, during the period (15 May 2017 to 31 September 2017).

7. Theoretical Framework

The aspiration of countries, the desire of institutions, and the aspiration of peoples to acquire the elements of sustainable development based on stability, economic security, growth and prosperity underscore the great role of entrepreneurship in all areas and activities of development and shows the need to launch and pursue business practices in a strategic direction in an institutional framework at the local and global levels., And that universities should therefore turn to entrepreneurship for the care and adoption of human elements in order to nurture and build the distinguished human elements that represent the nucleus of future entrepreneurs capable of establishing entrepreneurial projects and providing the requirements and ingredients of innovative thinking and developmental behavior among the members of the society. This will contribute to addressing the gap between knowledge and application and to assert the professional responsibility of the community institutions to cooperate in rethinking and developing systems to become entrepreneurs. Individual, institutional and community culture (e.g., as discussed by Eid [2014: 146]) [2] .

1) The concept of entrepreneurship: The concept of leadership first entered the French language in the sixteenth century operator. The concept of entrepreneurship entered economic activity at the beginning of the eighth century by Richard Catillon, who was described by the shipper late in the day culture (e.g., as discussed by Friday [2014: 23]) [3] .

2) Definition of leadership: Jeffrey A. Timmons defines leadership as the ability to create and build things from nothing, it is the initiative, work and achievement to build the project. As well as observation and analysis is the talent of the sense of opportunity where not seen by others.

Leadership is must be alongside a complementary team to your skills and talents―knowing how to control and organize resources (which are often owned by others), making sure that you do not spend money except in the need to prepare yourself for personal and financial risk and then do everything possible to get Favorite Benefit (as discussed by Ahmed, [2014: 25]) [3] .

Definition of Pioneering Education: Leadership education is the creation of a mentality and culture of entrepreneurship, innovation, problem solving, active citizenship, self-confidence and ability to succeed in whatever they chose (as discussed by Eid, [2014: 150]) [2] .

3) Objective of leadership education and training

- Perhaps most of the pioneering education programs are being sought (as discussed by Eid, [2014: 154]) [2] .

- To improve the ability of the recipients of the leading education to achieve personal achievements and contribute to the progress of their communities.

- The preparation of leading individuals to achieve success through the stages of their future career and raise their abilities to plan for the future. And then becomes the ultimate measure of education and leadership is how to contribute to support the aspirations of young entrepreneurs who can be converted to entrepreneurs, and facilitate the attempts to establish entrepreneurial projects and of course, Knowledge that serves the knowledge economy and seeks to build a knowledge society whenever value added is valuable. In view of the above, the main objectives of the pilot education and training programs can be presented as follows:

i) Provide knowledge to leadership education.

ii) Building the necessary skills to manage leadership projects and to formulate and prepare business plans.

ii) Identify and raise motivation and develop leadership talents.

iv) Change the attitudes of all groups of society and instill a culture of self-employment in all fields.

a) Expected roles as a result of leadership education: To demonstrate the contribution of establishing the culture of entrepreneurship and teaching its origins in many aspects of professional, community and personal life. In order to build the knowledge economy and face the problem of unemployment, we refer to the following:

- Leadership education is an essential step towards instilling entrepreneurship, increasing the chances of business success and making future leaders bear the burdens of national economic growth in line with global trends.

- Leadership education increases the outstanding capabilities for wealth creation by stabilizing opportunities related to knowledge orientation at the global level, thus making an important contribution to building the knowledge society.

- Pioneering education produces pioneers in creativity and innovation, enabling the transformation towards a breakthrough in building the knowledge economy through renewable ideas related to the development of the knowledge society.

- Entrepreneurship education contributes to increasing knowledge assets and maximizing the wealth of individuals by increasing the wealth and accumulation of capital in the field of knowledge at the level of the nation, and the impact on building the knowledge society.

- Pioneering Education provide the Employees in institutions rare skills that enable them to increase their sales growth rate significantly higher than their peers.

- Pioneering education increases the likelihood of developing new products, as entrepreneurs become more creative.

- Pioneering education increases the likelihood of graduates acquiring high-tech business ideas that serve to build a knowledge society and contribute to overcoming the problem of unemployment.

- Leading education leads to a change in the structure of concentration of wealth in the nations, so as to achieve economic stability and shift from the economy to rely on a limited number of capital owners to have the largest number of members of the community of wealth to achieve stability and diversity in the areas of work.

- Pioneering education contributes to the transformation of ideas into projects at a rate more than others in order to achieve value and excellence at the national and global level and supports the trend towards the knowledge society.

- Entrepreneurship education creates more opportunities associated with making technological advances based on knowledge. The state of Arizona states that entrepreneurship education has increased the value added of the community. The number of private projects established by the students has increased to serve their communities and contributed to overcoming unemployment, Most of these projects were part of knowledge projects, which contributed to the building and development of the knowledge society.

b) Pioneering education and the consolidation of its culture in building a knowledge society to address the problem of unemployment:

Studies show that entrepreneurship education and knowledge economy is a key element and have a clear impact on the success of emerging projects. These studies show that 54% of entrepreneurs with knowledge-oriented entrepreneurship are graduates and their income is increasing from 62% 27%, confirming that entrepreneurship education and the knowledge economy orientation to build a knowledge society represents a contribution to growth through pioneering knowledge-driven entrepreneurship in the production and delivery of its products and services (as discussed by [2002, Kawabe, Nobuo, 2000, Irwin, D] [4] ).

It should also be noted that entrepreneurship education programs that are concerned with developing the capacity to provide self-employment and to others through the establishment of new pilot projects that produce new goods/services are rare. Therefore, as entrepreneurship seeks to build an innovative and innovative economic system, It is very important that it be activated under the umbrella of institutions of higher education and the Mediterranean so that they can develop pioneering ideas and adopt these ideas through pioneering education to become productive pilot projects (as 2008 by [Steve Mariotti, 2007/2008, Rieva Lesonsky] [5] ).

4) Unemployment is defined as “the situation in which a person is able to work and wants to work, but he can not find the right work and pay” in the sense that it is the compulsory cessation of part of the labor force in the economy from work with the desire and ability to work and the intended labor force is the population Who are able and willing to work with the exclusion of children (under 18), the elderly, the elderly and the sick (as discussed by Ajwa, Atef, [1985: 20] [6] ).

c) Leading education and reducing youth unemployment rates:

We believe that the societies suffered by unemployment resulted from the poor preparation of the human element in the various stages of education, making the surplus in specializations and deficits in specializations, and we believe that education and pioneering training is our way to overcome all the tributaries of unemployment in the next phase, one of the reasons is the educational outputs and non-adaptation For the labor market.

d) Previous studies: Several previous studies were conducted in different environments, which dealt with the subject of the study. Some of these studies will be listed according to their chronology according to the date of publication of the events. The oldest is as follows:

As discussed by Hassan study [2014] [7] : The objective of the study is to identify the level of leadership thinking among the managers of Kok Company in Erbil governorate from the point of view of the managers and the company’s official, to identify the effect of pioneering thinking on some of the management practices in them: the concept of leadership and leading organizations, In the company, identify the personal and organizational factors that are affected and influence the level of leadership thinking at Cork Communication Company, to highlight the role of pioneering thinking in enhancing the competitive advantage of Cork Company.

Arab Education Leadership Project (Synthesis Report 2012) [1] : The first component of the “Entrepreneurship in the Arab Countries” project The case study in Jordan focused on the convergence of the various aspects of entrepreneurship with different areas of the Jordanian educational system. A number of characteristics of leadership education have emerged in the Jordanian educational system, from basic education to academic and vocational secondary education. In 2003, the Education Reform Plan in Jordan provided for leadership as one of its main objectives. The case study showed that although there is an evolving plan to integrate the concept of entrepreneurship into education, there is still a need for improvements in the level of application, particularly with regard to competencies and skills aimed at entrepreneurship and employment opportunities for graduates in areas related to labor market needs. This process provides a good understanding of the current situation in terms of existing education policies and programs that have facilitated the successful implementation of various activities under the component. Within the second component of the project (2010-2012), Jordan has successfully implemented various activities to promote the integration of the concept of entrepreneurship into the Jordanian education system. In particular, the activities were based on the following:

i) Review policies and legislation. ii) Preparation of the concept matrix. iii) Evaluation of books and subjects in pre-vocational education in terms of availability of the concept of leadership. iv) Develop guidelines for teachers. v) Organizing a seminar on entrepreneurship education.

Arabian Study (2010) [8] The study aims to identify the contribution of universities and business colleges to the teaching and creation of entrepreneurship. The study found that it is not possible to teach leadership skills through the educational process, but also the shortage and underdevelopment of human and non-human educational resources in Arab higher education institutions. Reflected the lack of alignment of educational outputs with the requirements of the labor market, the absence of a strategic vision of higher education. The study has reached the following recommendations: The idea of developing educational programs for leadership should be adopted and do not ignore the suggestions of Chai that accompany a radical and necessary change in intellectual and educational concerns.

Gasmie’s study (2011) [9] The study aims to identify the pioneering industry and its importance in supporting the operation by focusing on the quality input of the educational outputs. The study reached the following results: There is a lack of quality of the university education output, which contributes to the lack of harmony between the graduates with the labor market, The university does not qualify its graduates with leadership values to facilitate their integration into the world of work and to establish their own businesses.

Al-Azzawi, Al-Amayra (2009-2010) [10] Leading in Jordanian tourism projects, the study aimed to identify the concept of entrepreneurship in general and to know the conditions, factors and rules of success of leadership. What are the benefits of tourism in Jordan? The study found the following results: There are multiple definitions of leadership and are used in several meanings. The book responded to the definition of a unified concept of leadership, but they agreed to distinguish the act or thought or institution in a field. The recommendations are:, Attention to efficiency, effectiveness and quality in work through learning, setting goals for work, providing guides to tourists and intellectuals.

And through review of previous studies―conducted in different settings―found that they were compatible with each other in terms of the reality of entrepreneurship, and most of these studies focused on the need to develop a general concept and conditions of success for leadership, but some of these studies were conducted in educational environments but did not care (2011). It is also noted that most studies have been conducted on service organizations, which makes the door open for any researcher to fill this research gap and contribute to enrich the knowledge and application of the subject of study in the environment Productivity, as will feed researcher brief him on previous studies to enrich the theoretical framework of the current study and in building a study tool and in the comment on the results that will reveal about the current study. Thus, the present study is complementary in its objectives to the objectives presented, and a new addition to the foregoing.

8. Method and Procedures

1) Methodology of the study: Based on the problem of the study and its objectives, the approach used in this study is descriptive analytical method, which aims to describe the phenomenon and diagnose and shed light on the different aspects for the purpose of understanding and identify the causes. The descriptive analytical approach is interested in clarifying the reality of the phenomenon by deriving its assets from steps Scientific studies in which attempts are made to answer the differences between the members of the study community according to some variables and to quantify them in order to understand the phenomenon and the required procedures to deal with it (Toukan et al., 1990: 188 [11] ).

2) Study population: The study population in the members of the Libyan teaching staff at the University of Omar Al-Mukhtar branch of Darnah, which has a membership of 193 members, and because of the great similarity between the characteristics of the branches of the University of Omar Mukhtar in terms of academic, administrative and financial conditions, In addition to the spread of these branches on a wide geographical area, and since it is difficult to apply the field study on all these branches for what it takes a long time and great effort, so the researcher believes that this study is conducted on the University of Omar Mukhtar branch Darnah, The sample was based on the krejcie and morg table (1970), where the size of the number of (127) members were selected in a random sample stratified and the distribution of the society of the study as follows and shown in Table 1.

3) The study tool: The questionnaire was used to collect the data needed to achieve the objectives of the study and answer its questions because of the possibility of collecting as much data as possible as easy to sort, display and analyze, divided into two parts:

a) Information on the questionnaire: The first part of the questionnaire contained general data on the participants, namely, gender, age, scientific level, degree and duration of service.

The scale of the leading education level: The scale is from twenty eight words derived from the scale prepared by (Al-Qasimi, 2011) with some modifications that fit the study objectives and measured on the Likert scale of five degrees, (Strongly agree, OK, neutral, disagreeable, strongly disagree) and that the term “OK” is very strong (“very high”), “OK”, “Neutral” (Very weak) and the twenty-eight words were divided into the following dimensions: measuring the content of the study programs, measurement of the system (1), when the answer (not strongly agree), while the participant is given the grade (2) when the answer is (disagree) and the score (3) when The answer (neutral) and the score (4) are

Table 1. Shows the s population at the University of Omar Mukhtar Darna.

Source: Head of teaching stuff affairs unit at the University of Omar Mukhtar Darnah.

Table 2. Demonstrate the distribution of the study population by demographic variables.

when the answer is (OK) and the score (5) when the answer is (strongly agree).

4) The distribution of the questionnaire: The sample of the study consisted of (127) members, and was chosen by the random stratified method. After the questionnaire was distributed, 103 forms were retrieved for statistical analysis, constituting 81%, and is considered a statistically acceptable proportion in the field of scientific studies and research. The process of distributing the forms and collecting them took a period of three weeks to obtain a high response rate and to give the participants the opportunity to make reliable data. And the following Table 2.

Note from Table 2:

・ The sample of the study is a male sample, with the majority being 95 males or 92.2%. This percentage is attributed to the nature of this administrative level and the nature of this function, which requires some members of the organization It may be the result of social customs and traditions in society, which consider that the function of women should be concentrated in areas such as maternity and social welfare and prefer to go to other areas such as teaching and etc.

・ The majority of the sample of the study is between 35 and 45 years of age, with 84.5% noting that 15.5% of them will retire during the coming years, which requires a good examination of the quality of the study. And the extent to which management is prepared to adopt the required replacement policy.

・ The majority of the sample of the study qualified for the master’s degree (68.9%), while the proportion of those holding a doctorate degree (31.1%).

・ The majority of the ample were MA holder and their percentage were 60.3% of the sample, while 31.1% of them had an assistant lecturer’s degree, while 9.7% had an assistant professor.

・ We also note from the table above the increase in the number of years of service for faculty members in their field of work in the university, where the percentage of those who are less than 5 years to 10 years (about 73.8%), and we conclude that the duration of service is indicative of the ability of faculty members to Familiarity with the different aspects of the activities they perform.

5) Stability and validation of the data collection tool:

a) Stability of the scale of the study: One of the conditions of safety of the scale is its stability, which is often associated with truth, since honesty is the appearance of stability, that is, the true measure is constant and not the reverse is true (1999: 204) [12] .

To ensure the stability of the questionnaire, Alpha Cronbach was tested using the statistical program (SPSS). The stability coefficient was 0.95. This value is high indicating the stability of the questionnaire and the strength of its internal cohesion (Table 3).

b) Accuracy of the study scale: The concept of honesty refers to “the extent to which the examination of the job used to perform it, or the performance of the questionnaire to the purpose for which it was established” (Abu Lebda, 1985: 242) [13] .

“Self-righteousness” is one of the simplest and most accurate methods of calculation. Self-truth is defined as the validity of the experimental scores for the actual scores. Self-confidence is measured by the square root of the test stability coefficient (Awad, 1999: 233) [14] .

Table 4 shows that the coefficients of the validity of the study standards are

Table 3. Shows the stability coefficients of the study measures.

high, which gives confidence in the validity of the scale and that the scale is designed for what is formed for.

6) Methods of data analysis: The researcher used some statistical methods to analyze the data obtained through the questionnaire, to achieve the objectives of the study, and after the completion of data collection has been reviewed and coding questionnaires collected and valid for analysis based on Likert scale measured by five. To calculate the length of the cells of the five-dimensional Likert scale, the range (5 − 1 = 4) was calculated and then divided by the number of scale categories to obtain the correct cell length (4/5 = 0.80). This value was then added to the lowest value in the scale (Or the beginning of the scale, which is the correct one), in order to determine the upper limit of this vinegar (Age, 2002: 322) [15] . Thus, cell length is as shown in Table 5. Based on this coding, the computer was used and a statistical program from the Software for Social Sciences Statistical Service (SPSS) was used according to the following:

Reliability of the study scale to ensure the stability of the questions of the questionnaire, and the degree of homogeneity and harmony with the problem of the study for the purpose of answering the question, through the use of the equation Alpha Cronbach Alpha and the Split Split Half-Half Coefficient.

Validated: The validated the scale of the study is validated to confirm the measure’s ability to measure what was set for it, or that the measure measures the phenomenon to be measured.

Cumulative Frequency, in order to limit the number of participants, and their percentages, according to the general characteristics of the sheets of questionnaires.

9. Measures of Central Tendency

The Arithmetic Mean, to determine the concentration of responses on the mean

Table 4. Shows the coefficient of honesty extracted from the stability coefficient.

Table 5. Shows the cell length of the study scale according to the Likert scale and practice.

value of all the main study variables. Measured Dispersion measures, such as Standard Deviation, were also used to determine deviations of responses to the mean value of the study variables Main, and Range to judge the degree of practice of teaching faculty members under study for pilot education according to the Likert Quintet.

One-Sample T Test with the confidence intervals of the sample mean to determine whether the average approval score for each statement (or for each of the study variables) in the sample of the study as a whole is greater than or less than a certain value μ, for the purpose of testing, Formulate the hypotheses of the study in a statistical way to: 3μ =: H0, 3 ≠ μ H1; and where μ is a specific value to be tested, it is equal to (3) which represents a neutral score as a theoretical average and represents the mean of the sample.

T test for intermediate differences between two independent variables (gender and scientific qualification).

One-Way ANOVA Analysis of the nature of the relationship between the leading education and the demographic variables of age, degree, and duration of service at the university.

Natural distribution The Normality Test was performed for all data to see if the data follow normal distribution or not by conducting the One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, because most of the scientific tests require that the distribution of data is normal. If the value of P-value is greater than 5%, it is clear that all data follow the normal distribution. P-value is greater than 5% for the leading education variable, which is (0.953) Statistics based on data follow-up Natural distribution (Table 6).

10. Presentation of the Results of the Study and Discussion

1) Discussion of the results related to the first question: What is the reality of the leading education in higher education institutions in Derna from the point of view of faculty members through the following dimensions: Measuring the content of the study programs, measuring the evaluation system, measuring the extent to which the courses contain leadership traits?

The questionnaire included twenty-eight words related to the leading education from the point of view of the faculty members of the Darnah branch. When calculating the mean and standard deviations, for their answers to these questions, it was possible to identify the level of the pilot education if the average of the measurement used in the questionnaire is (3). And the average of the responses,

Table 6. Shows the natural distribution test One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov.

with the average of the scale, it was found that the general arithmetic average of the leading education in the university under study was 3.17 and by a standard deviation (0.653), which is slightly higher than the average of the scale, indicating that there is knowledge of the importance and role of pioneering education The T-test showed that there were significant differences in the mean of the leading education at a significant level of 1%. This result was consistent with the results of the Hassan study (2014). Table 7 shows that the average response rates for the components of the pilot education ranged between (2.93) and (3.38) and with the adoption of (3) grades as the mean of the questionnaire scale. All the components had an average response rate greater than average. 3.38) and a standard deviation of (0.622) and a mean level, which is the highest component, while the component of the extent of containment of the courses has the characteristics of leadership in the last order at the level of intermediate and intermediate education components. The mean is 2.93 and the standard deviation is 0.882. Statistically significant at 5%.

Table 8 shows the following:

・ All terms of the leading education scale range from (1.73 to 4.90) and exercise very poorly to very high.

・ From Table 8, we see that the highest score of the system of the leading education system is the ninth term of distance learning, which states that the marks obtained by the student reflect his level, which averaged arithmetic (4.90) and standard deviation (0.337) and the degree of exercise is very high, The results of this study differ from those of Qassimi (2011). The study noted that most students admit that the marks they receive do not reflect their true level, which is estimated at 85%.

・ It is noted from Table 8 that the lowest level of words in the course of the degree of containment of the courses on the characteristics of leadership, which states that the student’s courses develop the ability and the tendency towards risk and performance of work according to the needs of the labor market. 1.06), the results of this dimension indicate that there is a very weak capacity of courses in terms of their ability to meet the needs of the labor market and this may be credited to relying on old curricula and not keeping pace with recent developments and knowledge of current market requirements.

Table 7. Demonstrate the respondents’ responses to the practice of exclusion of the reality of pioneering education at the University of Omar Mukhtar Darnah.

Table 8. Shows the respondents’ answers to each of the terms of the pilot education.

Based on the above, the study showed that there is a moderate practice by the University of Omar Al-Mukhtar Darnah for the system of education leading from the point of view of the members of the faculty and this is noted through the answers of the participants in the previous Table 8.

2) Discussion of the results related to the second question: Is there a statistically significant relationship between the responses of the sample of the study on the reality of the leading education in the institutions of higher education in the city of Derna according to some personal variables: gender, age, educational level, degree, duration of service?

a) Test the hypothesis regarding the nature of the relationship between the level of education leading and gender variant and scientific qualification:

In order to answer the hypothesis concerning the nature of the relationship between the leading education and the gender variant and the scientific qualification, the T analysis tests were used for the differences between the averages of two independent samples at a significance level of 5%; based on the determination of the calculated T value and the P-value value, The hypothesis is based on the following rule: If the value of P-value is greater than the significance level of 5%, the calculated T value is less than the value of T (1.66) at a significance level of 5% and degrees of freedom (107) If the value of P-value is less than the value of the significance level, 5% is the value T is greater than the value of the T-table at a significance level of 5%. We accept the alternative hypothesis and reject the null hypothesis.

The hypothesis regarding the nature of the relationship between pioneering and gender-changing education, which states that:

Zero Hypothesis 0H: There are no statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the gender variable in the members of the teaching staff at the University of Omar Mukhtar Darnah branch.

Alternative Hypothesis H1: There are statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the gender variable among the members of the teaching staff at Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Darnah Branch.

Table 9 shows that the value of P-value (0.00) is less than the value of the significance level 5%, the calculated T value (0.540) is greater than the T value (1.66) at the significance level 5% Which indicates that there are statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the gender variable among the members of the teaching staff at the University of Omar Al-Mukhtar branch of Darna for males with an average of (3.16), which may be due to the large number of males which reached (95). In females, which reached 8 females. This result differed with the study of Bilbi (2010) [8] .

・ Morality at the level of 5%.

- The hypothesis regarding the nature of the relationship between pioneering education and the variable of scientific qualification, which states that:

Zero Hypothesis 0H: There are no statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the variable of scientific qualification in the members of the teaching staff at the University of Omar Mukhtar Darnah branch.

Alternative Hypothesis H1: There are statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the variable of scientific qualification among the members of the teaching staff at the University of Omar Mukhtar Darnah branch.

As shown in Table 10, the value of P-value (0.695) is greater than the value of

Table 9. Shows the analysis of the T-test Independent for the average of the leading education by type variable.

Table 10. Shows the analysis of the T-test Independent for the average of the leading education according to the variable of the scientific qualification.

the significance level of 5%, the calculated T value (0.393) is lower than the tabular T value (1.66) at the significance level of 5% Zero hypothesis.

b) The hypotheses related to the nature of the relationship between the level of the leading education and some demographic variables (age, degree, duration of service at the university): One-Way-ANOVA tests were used at a significance level of 5%. On this assumption based on the following rule: If the value of P-value is greater than the significance level of 5%, we accept that (mean groups are equal) in the sense that there are no differences, but if the value of P-value is less than the value of significance level 5%. We reject (mean groups are not equal) which means that there are statistically significant differences among averages.

- The hypothesis regarding the nature of the relationship between pioneering and life-changing education, which states that:

Zero Hypothesis 0H: There are no statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the variable age in the members of the teaching staff at the University of Omar Mukhtar Darnah branch.

Alternative Hypothesis H1: There are statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the variable age in the members of the teaching staff at the University of Omar Mukhtar Darnah branch.

- The hypothesis regarding the nature of the relationship between pioneering education and variable degree, which states that:

Zero Hypothesis 0H: There are no statistically significant differences for the mean of the leading education due to the variable degree in the faculty members of the University of Omar Mukhtar branch Darnah.

Alternative Hypothesis H1: There are statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the variable of degree in the faculty members of the University of Omar Mukhtar Darnah branch.

- hypothesis regarding the nature of the relationship between the leading education and the variable duration of service, which states that:

- Zero Hypothesis 0H: There are no statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the variable duration of service in the members of the teaching staff at the University of Omar Mukhtar Darnah branch.

- Alternative Hypothesis H1: There are statistically significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the variable length of service in the members of the teaching staff at the University of Omar Mukhtar Darnah branch.

Table 11 indicates that the value of P-value of the leading education averages of the age variable and the degree of scientific duration of service in the university respectively (0.663, 0.442, 0.996) is greater than the value of the significance level (0.05), and this indicates that there are no significant differences between the average education Leading to the variables of age and degree of the duration of service at the university.

Table 11. Shows the analysis of the single variance of the mediators of the leading education by demographic variables (Age, Degree, Period of Service).

11. Results of the Study: Through the Statistical Analysis of the Study Data, and Test Hypotheses Reached Several Results Can Be Summarized as Follows

・ The study revealed that the general level of the leading education with its four components was average with an average of 3.17 and a standard deviation of 0.653.

・ The study showed that the general level of the content of the curriculum content was moderate, with an average of 3.20 and a standard deviation of 0.596.

・ The average mean of the evaluation system was average, with an average of 3.38 and a standard deviation of 0.622.

・ The study revealed that the overall level of the degree of containment of the courses on the leadership traits was average, with an average of 2.93 and a standard deviation of 0.882.

・ The study concluded that there are no significant differences in the average of the leading education due to the following demographic variables (age, academic qualification, degree, duration of service in the university under study) at a level of significance of 5%.

12. Recommendations of the Study

The results of the study provide a set of recommendations that are hoped to be followed to strengthen the pioneering education of the university under study. These recommendations are as follows:

- It is hoped that the senior management of the university under study will consider the concept of pioneering education and adopt policies and procedures that will increase the level of awareness of teaching staff members of leading education, which will increase the level of achievement of the university goals.

- Educate faculty members about the concept and importance of pioneering education through the adoption of courses and their diversity, which develop the student’s ability and tendency towards risk and rush to work according to the needs of the labor market.

- Formulate guide and a constant content of the courses taught at the University of Omar Al-Mukhtar and its branches are characterized by competitive character and prepare a selection of future radio.

- Create clear and specific systems for work and teaching from the methods and laboratories of Werach help the member of the teaching staff to organize his time and guide its use distinctly.

- Develop incentives and rewards systems by encouraging faculty members and motivating them to introduce, share and apply creative ideas and new entrepreneurial knowledge.

- Establish an effective system and clear criteria for students’ acceptance of leadership methods to ensure that students are prepared for the labor market.

- Encourage members of the teaching staff to research and development and provide textbooks with professional standards characterized by independence and providing the means of leading education and relying on it during the study plan so that the university administration can adopt it.

- Preparation of training programs for faculty members aimed at developing their abilities to motivate them and involve them in decision-making, brainstorming and discussion, and teamwork to achieve the University’s objectives under study.

- To work on introducing all that are useful in the field of pioneering education and work on explaining and simplifying the members of the teaching staff before starting to avoid the problem of resistance to change, which may be issued by some members of the teaching staff.

- Pioneering education remains a multidimensional issue. The following studies can be proposed:

・ Prepare current study to other universities to prove or reject the findings of the current study.

・ A study on pioneering education and its relation to some functional variables.

・ A study on pioneering education and its relation to innovative behavior.

・ A study on leadership education and its relation to organizational loyalty.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Cite this paper

Salama, T. and Abaide, A. (2019) The Reality of Pioneering Education in the Institutions of Higher Education in Derna City. Open Access Library Journal, 6, 1-23. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1105135.

References

[1] Synthesis Report (2012) Education for Entrepreneurship in the Arab States: Component II 2010-2012. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO Regional Office in the Arab States, Beirut.
[2] Eid, A.A. (2014) Pioneering Education, Introduction to Economic Stability and Social Security. Saudi International Conference of Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurship Associations.
[3] Ahmed, M. (2014) Entrepreneurship and Management of Small Projects. Al Quds Open University Publications, Palestine.
[4] Kawabe, N. (2002) Japanese Entrepreneurs in an Historical Perspective. Paper Presented at the Delphi Conference on Entrepreneurship in Theory and History.
[5] Mariotti, S. (2008) Entrepreneurshi. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
[6] Ajwa, A. (1985) Unemployment in the Arab World and Its Relationship to Crime. Arab Center for Security Studies and Training, Riyadh.
[7] Hassan, I.A. (2014) The Role of Leading Thinking in Achieving Competitive Advantage. Arbil, Iraq’s Kurdistan.
[8] Belarabi, A. (2010) Leadership and Education: The Opportunity to Correct Khallin. Leadership and Knowledge Society Conference, Al Zaytoonah University of Jordan.
[9] Qassemi, K. (2011) Pioneering Industry and Its Importance in Operating Support. Unpublished Master Thesis, University of Messila, Algeria.
[10] Al-Azzawi, N. and Al-Amayra, A. (2010) Leadership in Jordanian Tourism Projects. Research Paper, Middle East University for Graduate Studies, Business School, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
[11] Obaidat, T., et al. (1998) Scientific Research: Its Concept, Tools and Methods. 6th Edition, Dar Al-Fikr, Amman.
[12] Tayeb, A.M. (1999) Statistics in Education and Psychology. The Modern University Office, Alexandria.
[13] Libda, A. and Mohammed, S. (1985) Principles of Self-Assessment and Educational Assessment. Cooperative Press Workers Association, Amman.
[14] Awad, A.M. (1999) Psychological Measurement between Theory and Practice. Dar Al-Maarifa University, Cairo.
[15] Mohamed, A. (1999) Statistics in Education and Psychology. The Modern University Office, Alexandria.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.