Enhancement of Quality of Secondary Industrial Wastewater Effluent by Coagulation Process: A Case Study
Hossam Altaher, Ahmed Alghamdi
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.29144   PDF   HTML     6,088 Downloads   10,677 Views   Citations


The local wastewater treatment facility in Yanbu Industrial City receives 24,000 m3/day of industrial wastewater. This wastewater, mostly from refineries and petrochemical industries, goes through physical, biological and chemical stages of treatment. However, the treated water still fails to pass some of the permissible levels set by governmental agencies. This research paper investigated the enhancement of the treatment processes to reduce the turbidity of the effluent treated water. Ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, alum and commercial synthetic cationic polymer were tried as coagulants. Different conditions (i.e., pH, temperature, dose, stirring rate) were searched. Ferrous sulfate and polymer reduced the final turbidity to acceptable values with very low doses compared with other coagulant.

Share and Cite:

H. Altaher and A. Alghamdi, "Enhancement of Quality of Secondary Industrial Wastewater Effluent by Coagulation Process: A Case Study," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 9, 2011, pp. 1250-1256. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.29144.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] J. Bratby, “Coagulation and Flocculation in Water and Wastewater Treatment,” Second Edition, IWA Publishing, London, 2006.
[2] O. Nkwonta, O. Olufayo, G. Ochieng, J. Adeyemo and F. Otieno, “Turbidity Removal: Gravel and Charcoal as Roughing Filtration Media,” South African Journal of Science, North America, Vol. 106, No. 11-12, 2011, pp. 1-5.
[3] D. H. Bache and R. Gregory, “Flocs in Water Treat- ment,” IWA Publishing, London, 2007.
[4] H. Sarparastzadeh, M. Saeedi, F. Naeimpoor and B. Aminzadeh, “Pretreatment of Municipal Wastewater by Enhanced Chemical Coagulation,” International Journal of Environmental Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2007, pp. 104-113.
[5] H. H. Zhan, X. Q. Zhang and X. H. Zhan, “Coagu-Flo- cculation Mechanism of Flocculant and Its Physical Model,” 2004 ECI Conference on Separations Technology VI: New Perspectives on Very Large-Scale Operations, Vol. Rp3, Article 8, 2004.
[6] P. Niquette, F. Monette, A. Azzouz and R. Hausler, “Impacts of Substituting Aluminum-Based Coagulants In Drinking Water Treatment,” Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2004, pp. 303-310.
[7] A. Aghapour and A. Mohammadi, “Investigating the Coagulation Efficiency of Paci In Reduction Of Water Turibidty in Shahrchay River in City of Orumieh and Its Health Effects,” Health System Research, North America, Vol. 6, March 2011. Accessed on 09 June 2011. http://www.jhsr.ir/index.php/jhsr/article/view/40
[8] P. K. Raghuwanshi, M. Monika, A. J. Sharma, H. S. Malviya and S. Chaudhari, “Improving Filtrate Quality Using Agrobased Materials as Coagulant Aid,” Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, Vol. 37, No. 4, 2002, pp. 745-756.
[9] S. A. Muyibi, A. H. M. Birima, T. A. Mohammed and M. J. M. M. Noor, “Conventional Treatment of Surface Water Using Moringa Oleifer Seeds Extract as a Primary Coagulant,” IIUM Engineering Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2004, pp. 25-35.
[10] B. Bina, M. H. Mehdinejad, M. Nikaeen and H. M. Attar, “Effectiveness of Chitosan as Natural Coagulant Aid in Treating Turbid Water,” Iranian Journal of Environ- mental Health Science & Engineering, Vo. 6, No. 4, 2009, pp. 247-252.
[11] A. R. Rahmani, “Removal of Water Turbidity by the Electrocoagulation Method,” Journal of Research in Health Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2008, pp. 18-24.
[12] E. E. Chang, P. C. Chiang, W. Y. Tang, S. H. Chao and H. J. Hsing, “Effects of Polyelectrolytes on Reduction of Model Compounds via Coagulation,” Chemosphere, Vol. 58, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1141-1150. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.08.008
[13] Z. P. Wang, Z. Zhang., Y. J. Lin, N. S. Deng, T. Tao and K. Zhuo, “Landfill Leachate Treatment by a Coagulation- Photooxidation Process,” Journal of Hazardous Mater, Vol. 95, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 153-159.
[14] D. B. Babcock and P. C. Singer, “Chlorination and Coagulation of Humic and Fulvic Acids,” Journal of the American Water Works Association, Vol. 71, 1979, pp. 149-152.
[15] M. L. Semmens and T. K. Field, “Coagulation: Experiences in Organics Removal,” Journal of the American Water Works Association, Vol. 72, No. 8, 1980, pp. 476-483.
[16] F. C. Blanc and R. Navia, “Treatment of Diary Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation,” Proceedings of the Industrial Waste Conference, 45th, West Lafayette (Indiana), 8-10 May 1990, pp. 681-689.
[17] C. S. Fitzpatrick, E. Fradin and J. Gregory, “Temperature Effects on Flocculation, Using Different Coagulants,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 50, No. 12, 2004, pp. 171-175.
[18] D. Guan, Z. Zhang, X. Li and H. Liu, “Effect of pH and Temperature on Coagulation Efficiency in a North-China Water Treatment Plant,” Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 243-249, 2001, pp. 4835-4838.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.