Improving Functional Characteristics of Wool and Some Synthetic Fibres
O. G. Allam
DOI: 10.4236/ojopm.2011.11002   PDF   HTML     9,339 Downloads   21,524 Views   Citations


The present article reviews recent developments in different treatments that confer functional characteristics on wool and some synthetic fibers such as acrylic, polyamide and polyester of these functionalities mention is made of shrinkage-resistance, felt proofing, ant pilling, antimicrobial, surface properties (hydrophilic, soil –resistance, water and oil-repellency), self-cleaning, anti odor and flame retardant. The article also illustrates nanotechnology applications to improve and / or to induce some of these properties. Improvement of these properties can give the fibres an important position between the textile fibres which make them more convenient in different uses.

Share and Cite:

O. Allam, "Improving Functional Characteristics of Wool and Some Synthetic Fibres," Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2011, pp. 8-19. doi: 10.4236/ojopm.2011.11002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] “An Introduction to Textile Terms,” August 6, 2006.
[2] K. E. Perepelkin, “Principles and Methods of Modification of Fibers and Fiber Material,” Fibre, Chemistry, Vol. 37, 2005, pp. 123-140. doi:10.1007/s10692-005-0069-6
[3] S. D. Worley and G. Sun, “Biocidal Polymers,” Trends polymer Science, Vol. 4, 1996, pp. 364-370.
[4] H. Mucha, D. H?ffer, S. Abfalg and M. Swerev, “Antimicrobial Finishes and Modifications,” Mel-liand International, Vol. 4, 2002, pp. 53-56.
[5] J. Ellis, “Development in the Shrink-Resist Processing of Wool,” Aa-chen Textiltagung, No. 122, 1996, pp. 113.
[6] R. Makinson, “Shrink Proofing of Wool,” New York, Marcel Dekker, 1979, pp. 264-338.
[7] U. Ryo, S. Yutaka, I. hiraku, S. Munenori and M. Takeki, “Shrink Resist Treatment for Wool Using Mul-tifunctional Epoxides,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 61, No. 2, 1991, pp. 89-93. doi:10.1177/004051759106100206
[8] R. Julià, J. Solà and P. Erra, “Influence of Water in Wool Treatments with Sodium Methoxide in 2-Propanol Medium to Improve Shrink Resistance,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1990, pp. 123-128. doi:10.1177/004051759006000301
[9] R. L. Breier, “A New Enzymatic Ant felt and Ant pilling Finishing for Wool,” Pro-ceedings of 10th International Wool Textile Conference, Aachen, November 2000, p. 4.
[10] L. Coderch, M. R. Julia and P. Frra, “Modification of Wool Fibers Subjected to Shrink proofing Derivative processes,” Proceedings of 8th International Wool Textile Research Conference, Vol. 4, Wool Organization of New Zealand, 1990, pp. 370-379.
[11] L. Coderch, A. Pinazo and P. Erra, “Derivative Wool Shrinkage Processing,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 62, 1992, pp. 302-306.
[12] J. C. Cosnard, “Structure Modification by Ant felt Treatments with Salts of Dichloroisocyanuric Acid,” Applied Polymer Symposium, Vol. 18, 1971, pp. 701-706.
[13] M. C. Jeanette, J. Yao and N. Alberto, “DCCA Shrink Proofing of Wool Part 1: Importance of Antichlor Natio- n,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 74, 2004, pp. 555-560. doi:10.1177/004051750407400616
[14] A. Riva, J. Cegarra and R. Prieto, “The Role of an Enzyme in Reducing Wool Shrinkage,” Journal of Society dyers and colors, Vol. 109, 1993, pp. 210-213.
[15] H. El-Sayed, A. Kantouch, E. Heine and H. H?ker, “Developing a Zero-AOX Shrink-Resist Process for Wool Part 1: Preliminary Results,” Color Technology, Vol. 117, 2001, pp. 234-238. doi:10.1111/j.1478-4408.2001.tb00068.x
[16] M. C. Jeanette, J. Yao and G. P. John, “Combined Bleaching, Shrinkage Prevention and Biopolishing of Wool Fabrics,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 75, No. 2, 2005, pp. 169-1764. doi:10.1177/004051750507500215
[17] M. C. Jeanette, “En-zyme—Mediated Cross Linking of Wool, Part 1: Transgluta-minase,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 77, No. 4, 2007, pp. 214-221. doi:10.1177/0040517507076327
[18] H. J. Buchman, U. Den-ter, D. Knitter and E. Schollmeyer, “The Use of Cyclodex-trines in Textile Processes—An Overview,” Journal of Textile Institute, Vol. 89, 1998, pp. 554-561.
[19] K. Opwis, E. Bach, H. J. Buchman, D. Knitter and E. Schollmeyer, “Stabilisierung Enzymatischer Tilveredlungsprozesse Durch Cyclodextrine,” Melliand Textilber, Vol. 79, 1998, pp. 545-546.
[20] S. Saro-vat, B. Sudatis, P. Meeslipa, B. P. Grady and R. Magaraphen, “The Use of Sericin As an Antioxidant and Antimicrobial for Polluted Air Treatment,” Review of Advanced Materials Science, Vol. 5, 2003, pp. 193-198.
[21] Y. O. Zhang, “Applications of Natural Silk Protein Sericin in Biomaterials,” Biotechnology Advances, Vol. 20, 2002, pp. 91-96. doi:10.1016/S0734-9750(02)00003-4
[22] O. G. Allam, H. El-Sayed, A. Kant ouch and K. Haggag,“Use of Sericin in Felt Proofing of Wool,” Journal of Natural Fibers, Vol. 6, 2009, pp. 14-26. doi:10.1080/15440470802699802
[23] S. Pane, “Acrylic Fabric Treated With Plasma for Outdoor Application,” Journal of Industrial Textile, Vol. 31, 2001, pp. 135-145. doi:10.1106/YVCC-FTJN-9K28-3974
[24] R. Molina, “Sur-face Characterization of Keratin Fibres Treated by Water Vapour Plasma,” Surface and interface analysis, Vol. 35, 2003, pp. 128-135. doi:10.1002/sia.1510
[25] C. W. Kan, “Development of Low Temperature Plasma, Technology on Wool,” The 6th Asian Textile Conference, Innovation and Globalization, Proceedings, August, Hong Kong, 2001, pp. 22-24.
[26] M. Masukuni and I. Norihiro, “Relationship Between Anti-Felting Properties and Physicochemical Properties of Wool Fibers Treated with Ar-Plasma,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 89, 2006, pp. 687-694.
[27] J. O. Ukponmwan, Mukhopadhyay and K. N. Chatterjee, “Pilling,” Textile Progress, Vol. 28, 1990, pp. 1-55. doi:10.1080/00405169808688874
[28] M. Raffaella, L. Gui-seppina, Riccardo, M. Giorgio, R. Fabio, M. Alessio and V. Espedito, “Characterization of Plasma—Coated Wool Fabrics,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 9, 2009, pp. 853-861.
[29] H. El-Sayed and E. El-Khatib, “Modification of Wool Fabric Using Ecologically Acceptable UV-Assisted Trea- tments,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Vol. 80, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1111-1117. doi:10.1002/jctb.1290
[30] P. J. Brown, M. Sultan and J. H. Nobbs, “Cross Linking Acrylic Fibres with Hexanediol and Pentaerythritol,” American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2002, pp. 46-50.
[31] M. Isamu and O. Shojiro, “Chemical Modification of Jer- sey Prepared with Synthetic Fibres Modification of Acr- ylic Fibre-Wool Blend,” Kanagawa-ken Kogyo Shi- kensho, Vol. 30, 1971, pp. 1-7.
[32] R. Purwar and M. Joshi, “Recent Developments in Antimicrobial Finishing of Textiles: A Review,” American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, Vol. 4, 2004, pp. 22-26.
[33] G. Yuan and C. Robin, “Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Treatments of textiles,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 78, No. 1, 2008, pp. 60-72. doi:10.1177/0040517507082332
[34] C. Diana, O. Simona and V. Narcisa, “Biofunctionalization of Textile Materials by Antimicrobial Treatments: A Critical Overview,” Romanian Biotechnological Letters, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2010.
[35] M. R. Infante, M. Diz, A. Pinazo and P. Erra, “Microbial Resistance of Wool Fabric Treated with Cbis-Quats Compounds,” Journal of Applied Bacteriology, Vol. 81, 1996, pp. 212-216. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1996.tb04503.x
[36] A. Z. Sayed and M. S. A. El-Gaby, “Synthesis of Novel Dye Stuffs Containing Sulphonamido Moieties and Their Application on Wool and Polyamide Fibres,” Color Technology, Vol. 117, 2001, pp. 293-297. doi:10.1111/j.1478-4408.2001.tb00078.x
[37] M. H. Ma and G. Sun, “Antimicrobial Cationic Dyes, Part 3: Simultaneous Dyeing and Antimicrobial Finishing of Acrylic Fabrics,” Dyes and Pigments, Vol. 66, 2005, pp. 33-41. doi:10.1016/j.dyepig.2004.09.001
[38] S. R. Karmakar, “Chemical Technology in the Pre-Tre- atment Processes of Textiles,” Elsevier: Amsterdam, 19- 99, pp. 15-17.
[39] T. Zhao and G. Sun, “Antimicrobial Finishing of Wool F- abrics with Quaternary Amino Pyridinium Salts,” Journal Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 103, 2006, pp. 482-486. doi:10.1002/app.24986
[40] Z. Ping and S. Gang, “Antimi-crobial Finishing of Wool Fabrics Using Quaternary Ammo-nium Salts,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 93, No. 3, 2004, pp. 1037-1041.
[41] Z. S. Cai and G. Sun, “Anti-microbial Finishing of Acrilan Fabrics with Cetylpyridinium Chloride,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 94, 2004, pp. 243-247. doi:10.1002/app.20876
[42] C. Zaisheng and S. Gang, “Anti-microbial Finishing of Acrilan Fabrics with Cetylpyridinium Chloride: Affected Properties and Structures,” Journal of Ap-plied Polymer Science, Vol. 97, pp. 1227-1236.
[43] Y. H. Kim and G. Sun, “Dye Molecules as Bridges for Functional Modifications of Naylon: Antimicrobial Fun- ctions,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 72, 2002, pp. 1052-1056.
[44] Y. H. Kim and G. Sun, “Durable Antimicrobial Nylon Fabrics with Acid Dyes and a Quaternary Ammonium Salts,” Textile Re-search Journal, Vol. 71, 2001, pp. 318-323. doi:10.1177/004051750107100407
[45] M. Rinaudo, “Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications,” Progress in Poly-mer Science, Vol. 31, 2006, pp. 603-632. doi:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2006.06.001
[46] S. H. Lim and S. M. Hudson, “Review of Chatoyant and its Derivatives as Anti-microbial Agents and their Uses as Textile Chemicals,” Journal of Macromol Science P- olymer Review, Vol. 43, 2003, pp. 227-269.
[47] V. R. Giridev, J. Venugopal, S. Sudha, G. Dee-pika and S. Ramakrishna, “Dyeing and Antimicrobial Charac-teristics of Chitosan Treated Wool Fabrics with Henna Dye,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 75, 2009, pp. 646-650. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.09.003
[48] K. So-Hyun, L. Taek Seung and P. Wonho, “Preparation of Antimicrobial Fibres Through Chemical Modification of Acrylic Fibres,” Journal of the Korean Fiber Society, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2002, pp. 390-395.
[49] G. SUN, “Bioactive Fibers and Polymers,” J. V. Edwards, T. L., Editors, American Chemical Society, Sympo-sium Series No.792, 2001, p. 37.
[50] A. Atef El-Sayed, L. K. El Gabry and O. G. Allam, “Application of Prepared Waterborne Polyurethane Extended with Chitosan to Impart Antibacterial Properties to Ac- rylic Fabrics,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, Vol. 21, 2010, pp. 507-514. doi:10.1007/s10856-009-3900-4
[51] A. E. Toneli, “Improving Textiles with Cyclodextrins,” 4th Inter, Conference Textile Research, Division National Research Centre, Cairo, 2007, pp. 64-72.
[52] Y. El Ghoul, N. Blanchemain, T. Laurent, C. Campagne, A. El Achari, S. Roudesli, M. Morcellet, B. Martel and H. F. Hildebrand, “Chemical, Biological and Microbiologic- al Evaluation of Cyclodextrin Finished Polyamide Inguinal Meshes,” Acta Biomaterialia, Vol. 4, 2008, pp. 1392-1400. doi:10.1016/j.actbio.2008.02.019
[53] A. Bendak, O. G. Allam and L. K. El-Gabry, “Treatment of Polyamides Fabrics with Cyclodextrins to Improve Some Properties,” Open Textile Journal, 2010.
[54] W. D. Schindler and P. J Hauser, “Chemical Finishing of Textiles,” Cambridge, Wood Head Publishing Ltd., Vol. 165, 2004. doi:10.1533/9781845690373
[55] B. Marcandalli, “Application of Plasma Technology on Textiles,” 3rd International Conference, Textile Research. Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, 2006, pp. 635-638.
[56] N. Abidi and E. Hequet, “Cotton Fabric Copolymerization Using Microwave Plasma, Universal Attenuated Total Reflectance—FITR Study,” Journal of applied polymer science, Vol. 93, 2004, pp. 145-154. doi:10.1002/app.20442
[57] T. Wakida, S. Cho, S. Choi, S. Tokino and M. Lee, “Effect of Low Temperature Plasma Treatment on Color of Wool and Nylon 6 Fabrics Dyed with Natural Dyes,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 68, 1998, pp. 848-853. doi:10.1177/004051759806801110
[58] C. Yu-Bin, T. Pei-Chiu, W. Mien-Win, H. Tien-Hsiang and H. Shan-hui, “A Study on Chitosan Modification of Polyester Fabrics, Fibers and Polymers,” Vol. 9, No. 3, 2008, pp. 1229-9197.
[59] J. M. Susie, P. Jonathan, W. Caldell, J. H. Anita, C. Katie, M. D. Jolon and G. B. warren, “Covalent Modification of the Wool Fiber Surface: The Attachment and Durability of Model Surface Treatment,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 78, 2008, pp. 1087-1097. doi:10.1177/0040517507087852
[60] I. Holme, “Enzymes for Innovative Textile Treatments,” Textile Magazine, No. 3, 2004, p. 8.
[61] A. P. Cavaco and G. M. Gübitz, “Textile Processing with Enzymes,” Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing, 2003. doi:10.1533/9781855738669
[62] G. F. Colbrie, S. Heumann and G. M. Gübitz, “Biotechnology in the Textile Industry: En-zymatic Modification of Synthetic Fibers,” 2nd International Conference of Textile Research Division, NRC, Cairo, Egypt, 11-13 April, 2005, pp. 33.
[63] H. Uyama and Kobayashi, “Enzyme—Catalyzed Polymerization of Functional Polymers,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis Enzyme, Vol. 19, 2002, pp. 117-127. doi:10.1016/S1381-1177(02)00158-3
[64] I. Holme, “Innova-tive Technologies for High Performance Textiles,” 3rd Interna-tional Conference of Textile Research Division, NRC, Cairo, Egypt, April 2-4, 2006, pp. 466-482.
[65] S. József “Cyc-lodextrins in the Textile Industry,” Sta- rch/St?rke, Vol. 55, 2003, pp. 191-196. doi:10.1002/star.200390050
[66] U. Denter, H.-J. Buschmann, D. Knittel and E. Schol- lmeyer, “Technology for Permanent Fixing of Cyclodextrin Derivatives Onto Textile Fibers,” Tex-tilveredlung, Vol. 32, 1997, pp. 33-39.
[67] J. Zhao, D. Shanyi and T. Guishan, “Surface Modification of Acrylic Fiber by Grafting of Casein,” Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied C- hemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2007, pp. 299-304. doi:10.1080/10601320601077351
[68] B. Marcandalli, “Ap-plication of Plasma Technology on Textiles,” 3rd International Conference on Textile Processing: State of the Art and Future Developments of Textile Research Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt, 2006, pp. 635-638.
[69] T. Wakida, S. Tokino, S. Niu, H. Kawamura, Y. Sato, M. Lee, H. Uchiyama and H. Inagaki, “Surface Characteristics of Wool and Poly Ethylene Terephthalate) Fabrics and Fiber Treated with Low-Temperature Plasma under Atmospheric Pressure,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 63, 1993, pp. 433-438. doi:10.1177/004051759306300801
[70] T. Oktem, N. Se-ventekin, H. Ayhan and E. Piskin, “Modification of PAN Fa-brics by in Situ-Plasma Polymerisation Method,” Melliand Textilber, Vol. 82, No. 3, 2001, pp. E51-E53.
[71] J. Kang and M. Sarmadi, “Plasma Treatment of Textile- synthetic Po-lymer-Based Textile,” American Association of Textile Chemists and ColoristsReview, Vol. 4, No. 11, 2004, pp. 29-33.
[72] Y. Joanne, C. Kwong, M. S. Kwan and L. S. Kai, “Comprehensive Study of Polymer Fiber Surface Modifications Parts: Low Temperature Oxygen Plasma Treatment,” P- olymer Interna-tional, Vol. 53, 2004, pp. 634-639. doi:10.1002/pi.1278
[73] P. Malcik and J. petrovsky, “Contri-bution to the Plasma Chemical Treatment of Textile,” Textile, Vol. 38, No. 8, 1983, pp. 282-287.
[74] T. Oktem, N. Seventekin, H. Ayhan and E. Piskin, “Modification of PAN Fabrics by in Situ-Plasma Polymerisation Method,” Melliand Textilber, Vol. 82, No. 3, 2001, pp. E51-E53.
[75] Y. Joanne, C. Kwong, M. S. Kwan and L. S. Kai, “Low Temperature Plasma-Treated Nylon Fabrics,” Journal of Materials processing technology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2002, pp. 5-12.
[76] H. Watanabe and B. Tomoko, “Fluro Resin—Containing Modified Polyester Fibers with Improve Surface Smoothness,” Japan KokaiTokkyo Koho JP 06, Vol. 136, No. 616, 1994.
[77] G. Deepti, S. periyasamy and B. Abhishek, “Basic Dye Able Polyester: A New Approach Using a VUV Excimer Lamp,” Coloration Technology, Vol. 123, 2007, pp. 248-251.
[78] L. Kravets, S. Dmitriev, A. Gilman, A. Drachev and G. Dinescu, “Water Permeability of Poly (Ethylene Terphethalate) Track Membranes Modified by DC Discharge Plasma Polymerization of Dimethylaniline,” Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 263, 2005, p. 127. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2005.04.012
[79] K. Dierk and E. Schollmeyer, “Surface Structuring of Synthetic Polymers by UV-Laser Irradiation Part IV. Applications of Excimer Laser Induced Surface Modification of Textile Materials Polymer,” International, Vol. 45, 1998, pp. 110-117.
[80] M. A. White, “The Effect of Chemical and Polymer Finishing Treatments on the Flammability of Fabrics for P- rotective Clothing,” Fire safety Journal, Vol. 4, 1981, pp. 103-108. doi:10.1016/0379-7112(81)90009-6
[81] X. flambard, S. Bourbigot, R. Kozlowski, M. Muzyczek, B. Mieleniak, M. Ferreira, B. Vermeulen and F. Poutch, “Progress in Safety, Flame Retardant Textiles and F- lexible Fire Barriers for Seats in Transportation,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 88, 2005, pp. 98-105. doi:10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2004.02.024
[82] L. Danian, Q. Wen, L. Shiyan and Z. Zeqing, “Structure and Flame Retardation Mechanism of Hydrazine and Copper Ion-Modified Modacrylic Fibres,” Zhongguo Fangzhi Daxue Xuebao, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1989, pp. 7-13.
[83] T. Jin-Shy, “The Effect of Flame-Retardants on the Properties of Acrylic and Modacrylic Fibres,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 28, No. 5, 1993, pp. 1161-1167. doi:10.1007/BF01191947
[84] S. E. Fryer, “New Developments in Acrylic Carpet Fibres for Specific End-Uses,” Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, Vol. 90, No. 7, 1998, pp. 229-231. doi:10.1111/j.1478-4408.1974.tb03201.x
[85] H. C. V. Baeyer, “The Lotus Effect,” Sciences, Vol. 40, 2000, pp. 12-15.
[86] J. H. Xin and W. A. Daoud, “Small-Scale Tech-nology with the Promise of Big Rewards,” Technical Textiles International, Vol. 3, 2003, pp. 13-15.
[87] N. A. G. Johnson, E. J. Wood, P. E. Ingham, S. J. McNeil and I. D. McFarlane, “Wool as a Technical Fibre,” Journal of the Textile Institute, Vol. 94, 2003, pp. 26-41. doi:10.1080/00405000308630626
[88] B. T. Zhang, B. L. Liu, X. B. Deng, S. S. Cao, X. H. Hou and H. L. Chen, “Fabricating Super Hydrophobic Surfaces by Molecular Accumulation of Polysiloxane on Wool Textile Finishing,” Colloid Polymer Science, Vol. 286, 2008, pp. 453-457. doi:10.1007/s00396-007-1801-y
[89] G. Freddie, T. Arai, G. M. Colonna, A. Boschi and M. Tsukada, “Binding of Metal Cations to Chemically Modified Wool and Antimicrobial Properties of the Wool—Metal Complexes,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 82, 2001, pp. 3513-3519.
[90] http:/ www. Azonano. Com / “Nano horizons announces smart silver anti-odor nanotechnology for wool,” June 2007.
[91] Xu. Bingshe, M. Niu, L. Wei, W. Hou and X. Liu, “The Structural Analysis of Biomacromolecule Wool Fiber with Ag-Loading SiO2 Nano-Antibacterial Agent by U Radiation,” Journal of photochemistry and photobiology A: Chemistry,Vol. 188, 2007, pp. 98-105. doi:10.1016/j.jphotochem.2006.11.025
[92] S. Kathirvelu, D. S. Louis and D. Bharathi, “Nanotechnology Applications in Textiles,” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 5, 2008, p. 1.
[93] G. David and P. P. Anthony, “Absorption of Nanoparticles by Wool,” Coloration Technology, Vol. 125, 2009, pp. 11-116.
[94] G. Sonar, A. Luís, A. Teresa, C. Noémia, P. S. António and F. M. Esteves, “Polymer Nano-composites for Multifunctional Finishing of Textiles—A Re-view,” Textile Research Journal, On line First, published on March 9, 2010.
[95] J.Yeon, S. M. Kyun and I. K. Jui, “Elec-trospun TiO2 Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Journal of Nanotechnology, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 1861-1865. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/15/12/030
[96] I. Vesva, ?. Zoran, V. Vesna, M. Darka, J. Petar, N. Jovan and R. Maja, “A Study of the Antibacterial Efficiency and Coloration of Dyed Polyamide and Polyester Fabrics Modified with Colloidal Ag Nanopar-ticles,” Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, Vol. 74, No. 3, 2009, pp. 349-357. doi:10.2298/JSC0903349I
[97] Z. Ping, S. Shu-ying, W. Bing, Z. Jian-bo and D. Chao- hong, “Develop-ment of Nano-Antimicrobial dry Acrylic Fibres and Raschel Blankets,” Maofang Keji, Vol. 4, 2006, pp. 38-40.
[98] K. Hiroki and N. Hideo, “Photocatalytic Active Antibacterial Acrylonitrile Polymer Fibres Manufactured by Heat-Treating Acrylonitrile Polymer Fibres Containing Anti-Bacterial Metal Compounds at pH 1-6,” Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP., 089968 2001.
[99] N. Hideo and N. Tetsuo, “Trichlorophy-ton-Inhibiting Silver-Containing Acrylonitrile Fibre Structures,” Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP., Vol. 45, 2005.
[100] H. J. Lee and S. H. Jeong, “Bacteriostasis of Nanosized Colloidal Silver on Polyester Nonwovens,” Textile Research Journal, Vol. 74, 2004, p. 442. doi:10.1177/004051750407400511
[101] S. Y. Yeo, H. J. Lee and S. H. Jeong, “Preparation of Nanocomposite Fibers for Permanent Antibacterial Effect,” Journal of Martial Science, Vol. 38, 2003, p. 2143, doi:10.1023/A:1023767828656
[102] http:/ “Nano-Coating for Glass Per- manent Easy-to-Clean Coating Anti-Lime, Hygienic Eff- ect,” January 2007.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.