Natural radioactivity and the resulting radiation doses in some kinds of commercially marble collected from different quarries and factories in Egypt
S. Fares, Ali.A.M. Yassene, A. Ashour, M.K. Abu-Assy, M .Abd El-Rahman
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.310115   PDF   HTML     5,998 Downloads   11,382 Views   Citations


Fourteen samples of marble were collected from different factories in Egypt. The samples were crushed, dried in controlled furnace for around twenty four hours, and then stored for five weeks in plastic Marinelli beakers. Concentrations and the U- and Th-bearing minerals were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS).The gamma radiation of the samples was measured, employing high resolution γ-ray spectroscopy with an accumulating time for about 80000 sec. each. From the measured γ -ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for marble samples 226Ra (37. 6 ± 1.7 - 100.54 ± 3.2 Bq/kg), 232Th (3.57 ± 0.64 - 9.37 ± 1.80 Bq/kg) and 40K (30.68 ± 1.1 – 1196 ± 4.9 Bq/kg). The absorbed dose rates, annual effective dose rates, radium equivalent activities as well as the radiation hazard indices were estimated. The radium equivalent activities (Raeq) are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg?1 set by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by a Group of Experts of the OECD, Nuclear Energy Agency, OECD, Paris, 1979) [1]. All obtained results referred to the fact that all the concentrations were within the allowed limits to domestic use. Comparing the results in this work with those published by International Atomic Energy Agency and local and universal researches, it was found that these concentrations were within the allowed limits for agricultural and domestic uses.

Share and Cite:

Fares, S. , Yassene, A. , Ashour, A. , Abu-Assy, M. and El-Rahman, M. (2011) Natural radioactivity and the resulting radiation doses in some kinds of commercially marble collected from different quarries and factories in Egypt. Natural Science, 3, 895-905. doi: 10.4236/ns.2011.310115.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Organization for Economic Cooperation and Develop- ment (1979) Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials (OECD, Paris). Report by a Group of Experts of the OECD, Nuclear Energy Agency.
[2] Wedepohl, K.H. (1995) The composition of the continental crust. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 1217-1232. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(95)00038-2
[3] Menager, M.T. Heath, M.J., Ivanovich, M., Montjotin, C., Barillon, C.R., Camp, J. and Hasler, S.E. (1993) Migration of uranium from uranium-mineralized fractures into the rock matrix in Marble: Implications for radionuclide transport around a radioactive waste repository. 4th International Conference of Chemistry and Migration Behaviour of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere, Charleston, 12-17 December 2993, 47-83.
[4] Pavlidou, S., Koroneos, A., Papastefanou, C., Christofides, G., Stoulos, S. and Vavelides, M. (2006) Natural radioactivity of Marbils used as building materials. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 89, 48-60. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2006.03.005
[5] Tzortzis, M., Tsertos, H., Christofides, S. and Chris- todoulides, G. (2003) Gamma radiation measurements and dose rates in commercially-used natural tiling rocks (Marbels). Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 70, 223-235. doi:10.1016/S0265-931X(03)00106-1
[6] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) (1993) Exposures from natural sources of radiation. United Nations, New York, Annex A, A/Ac., 82/R.
[7] United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) (2000) Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation. United Nations, New York.
[8] Keller, G., Folkerts, K.H. and Muth, H. (1987) Discussing possible standards of natural radioactivity in building materials. Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 26, 143-150. doi:10.1007/BF01211408
[9] Savidou, A., Raptis, C. and Kritidis, P. (1996) Study of natural radionuclides and radon emanation in bricks used in the Attica region, Greece. Environmental Radioactivity, 31, 21-28.
[10] ICRP (1991) Recommendations of the international commission on radiological protection. ICRP Publication 60, Pergamon Press, Oxford.
[11] Lavi, N., Groppi, F., Alfassi, Z.B. (2004) On the mea- surement of 40 K in natural and synthetic materials by the method of high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Radiation Measurements, 38,139-143. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2003.11.005
[12] Akhtar, N., Tufail, M., Ashraf, M., Mohsin, A., Iqbal, M. (2005) Measurements of environmental radioactivity for estimation of radiation exposure from saline soil of Labore, Pakistan. Radiation Measurements, 39, 11-14.
[13] European Commission (1999) Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Radiation Protection 112.
[14] Guan, K.N., Yu, X.J., Stoks, M.J. and Young, E.C. (1992) The assessment of natural radiation dose committed to the Hong Kong people. Journal of Environmental Radio- activity, 17, 931.
[15] Beretka, J. and Mathew, P.J. (1985) Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, industrial wastes and by-products. Health Physics, 48, 87-95. doi:10.1097/00004032-198501000-00007
[16] Hayumbu, P., Zaman, M.B., Lubaba, N.C.H., Munsanje, S.S. and Nuleya, D. (1995) Natural radioactivity in Zambian building materials collected from Lusaka. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 199, 229-238. doi:10.1007/BF02162371
[17] Harb, S. (2008) Natural radioactivity and external gamma radiation exposure at the coastal red sea in Egypt. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 130, 376-384. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncn064
[18] Taskin, H., Karavus, M., Ay, P., Topuzoglu, A., Hindiroglu, S. and Karahan, G. (2009) Radionuclide concentrations in soil and lifetime cancer risk due to the gamma radio- activity in Kirklareli, Turkey. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 100, 49-53. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.10.012
[19] Amrani, D. and Tahtat, M. (2001) Natural radioactivity in Algerian building materials. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 54, 687-689. doi:10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00304-3
[20] Ngachina, M., Garavagliac, M., Giovanic, C., Kwato, N.M.G. and Nourreddined, A. (2007) Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in some Cameroonian building materials. Radiation Mea- surements, 42, 61-67. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2006.07.007
[21] Ahmad, M.N. and Hussein, A.J.A. (1997) Natural radio-activity in Jordanian building materials and the associated radiation hazards. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 39, 9-22.
[22] Bou-Rabee, F. and Bem, H. (1996) Natural radioactivity in building materials utilized in the state of Kuwait. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 213, 143-149. doi:10.1007/BF02165246
[23] Ahmed, N.K. (2005) Measurement of natural radio- activity in building materials in Qena city, Upper Egypt. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 83, 91-99. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2005.03.002
[24] Al-Saleh, F.S. and Al-Berzan, B. (2007) Measurements of Natural Radioactivity in Some Kinds of Marble and Granite Used in Riyadh Region. Journal of Nuclear and Radiation Physics, 2, 25-36.
[25] IAEA (2003) International Atomic Energy Agency, Guide lines for radioelement mapping using gamma ray spectrometry data. Vienna.
[26] Khrbish, Y.S., Abugassa, I.O., Benfaid, N. and Bashir, A.A. (2007) Instrumental neutron activation analysis for the elemental analysis of cement. Journal of Radio- analytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 271, 63-69. doi:10.1007/s10967-007-0107-3
[27] Ohama, Y. (1998) Polymer-based admixtures. Cement and Concrete Composites, 20, 189-212. doi:10.1016/S0958-9465(97)00065-6

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.