RETRACTED: Groundwater evolution in the Voltaian Basin, Ghana—an application of multivariate statistical analysesto hydrochemical data


Short Retraction Notice

This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. Aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.

The full retraction notice in PDF is preceding the original paper, which is marked "RETRACTED".

Share and Cite:


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Piper, A.M. (1944) A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water-analyses. American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, Papers, Hydrology, 914-923.
[2] Cloutier, V., Lfebvre, R., Therrien, R. and Savard, M.M. (2008) Multivariate statistical analysis of geochemical data as indicative of the hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in a sedimentary rock aquifer system. Journal of Hydrology, 353, 294-313. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.02.015
[3] Güler, C., Thyne, G.D., McCray, J.E. and Turner, A.K. (2002) Evaluation of graphical and multivariate statistical methods for classification of water chemistry data. Hydrogeology Journal, 10, 455-474. doi:10.1007/s10040-002-0196-6
[4] Farnham, I.M., Johannesson, K.H., Singh, A.K., Hodge, V.F. and Stetzenbach, K.J. (2003) Factor analytical approaches for evaluating groundwater trace element chemistry data. Analytical Chimica Acta, 490, 123-138. doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(03)00350-7
[5] Yidana, S.M., Ophori, D. and Banoeng-Yakubo, B. (2008a) A multivariate statistical analysis of surface water chemistry data—The Ankobra Basin, Ghana. Journal of Environmental Management, 86, 80-87. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.11.023
[6] Yidana, S.M., Banoeng-Yakubo, B. and Akabzaa, T.M. (2010) Analysis of groundwater quality using multivariate and spatial analyses in the Keta basin, Ghana. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 58, 220-234. doi:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2010.03.003
[7] Banoeng-Yakubo, B., Yidana, S.M. and Nti, E. (2009) An evaluation of the genesis and suitability of groundwater for irrigation in the Volta Region, Ghana. Environmental Geology, 57, 2005-1010. doi:10.1007/s00254-008-1385-y
[8] Jiang, Y., Wu, Y., Groves, C., Yuan, D. and Kambesis, P. (2009) Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting groundwater quality in the Nandong karst underground river system in Yunan, China. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 109, 49-61. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2009.08.001
[9] Kim, K.-H., Yun, S.-T., Choi, B.-Y., Chae, G.-T., Joo, Y., Kim, K. and Kim, H.-S. (2009) Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea). Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 107, 114-127. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2009.04.007
[10] Mahlnecht, J., Steinch, B. and Navarro de León, I. (2004) Groundwater chemistry and mass transfers in the Inde- pendence aquifer, central Mexico, by using multivariate statistics and mass-balance models. Environmental Ge- ology, 45,781-795. doi:10.1007/s00254-003-0938-3
[11] Helstrup, T., J?rgensen, N.O. and Banoeng-Yakubo, B. (2007) Investigation of hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater from Cretaceous—Eocene limestone aquifers in southern Ghana and Togo using hierarchical cluster analysis. Hydrogeology Journal, 15, 977-989. doi:10.1007/s10040-007-0165-1
[12] Yidana, S.M., Ophori, D. and Banoeng-Yakubo, B. (2008b) Hydrochemical evaluation of the Voltaian system—The Afram Plains area, Ghana. Journal of Environmental Management, 88, 697-707. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.03.037
[13] Anazawa, K. and Ohmori, H. (2005) The hydrochemistry of surface waters in Andesitic Volcanic area, Norikura volcano, central Japan. Chemosphere, 59, 605-615. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.10.018
[14] Brown, C.E. (1998) Applied multivariate statistics in geohydrology and related sciences. Springer, New York.
[15] Kesse, G.O. (1985) The mineral and rock resources of Ghana. A.A, Balkema, Rotterdam.
[16] Junner, N.R. and Hirst, T. (1946) The geology and hydrogeology of the Volta Basin. Gold Coast Geological Survey, Memoir 8.
[17] Banoeng-Yakubo, B., Yidana, S.M., Ajayi, J.O., Loh, Y. and Asiedu, D. (2010) Hydrogeology and groundwater resources of Ghana: A review of the hydrogeological zonation of Ghana. In McMann, J.M., Ed., Potable Water and Sanitation, Nova Science Publishers.
[18] Dapaah-Siakwan, S. and Gyau-Boakye, P. (2000) Hydrogeologic framework and borehole yields in Ghana. Hydrogeology Journal, 8, 405-416. doi:10.1007/PL00010976
[19] Carrier, MA, Lefebvre, R., Racicot, J. and Asare, E.B., (2008) Northern Ghana hydrogeological assessment project. 33rd WEDC International Conference, Accra, 7-11 April 2008.
[20] Ghana Meteorological Agency (2010) Synoptic weather stations data. Unpublished, Accra.
[21] Ghana Statistical Service (2000) 2000 population and housing census. Accra.
[22] Güler, C. and Thyne, G.D. (2004) Hydrologic and geologic factors controlling surface and Groundwater chemistry in Indian wells—Owens Valley area, southeastern California, USA. Journal of Hydrology, 285, 177-198. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2003.08.019
[23] Kaiser, H.F. (1960) The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 141-151. doi:10.1177/001316446002000116
[24] Thurstone, L.L. (1935) The vectors of mind. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 226-231.
[25] DiStefano, C., Zhu, M. and Mindrilá, D. (2009) Understanding and using factor scores: Considerations for applied researcher. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 14.
[26] ArcGIS 9.3 (2009) Geocoding technology. ESRI, New York.
[27] WHO (World Health Organization) (1984) Guidelines for drinking water quality. Recommendations, Vol. 1, Geneva.
[28] Apambire, N.B, Boyle, R. and Michel, F.A. (1997) Geochemistry, genesis, and health implication of Fluoriferous groundwaters in the upper region of Ghana. Environmental Geology, 33, 13-24. doi:10.1007/s002540050221
[29] Yidana, S.M. and Yidana, A. (2010) Assessing ground- water quality using water quality index and multivariate statistical analysis—The Voltaian basin, Ghana. Journal of Environmental Earth Science, 59, 1461-1473. doi:10.1007/s12665-009-0132-3
[30] Yidana, S.M (2011) Hydrochemical characterization of aquifers using sequential multivariate analysis and Geographical Information Systems in a tropical setting. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 137, 258-273. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000329
[31] Acheampong, S.Y. and Hess, J.W. (1998) Hydrogeological and hydrochemical framework of the shallow groundwater system in the southern Voltaian sedimentary basin, Ghana. Hydrogeology Journal, 6, 527-537. doi:10.1007/s100400050173
[32] Wen, X., Wu, Y., Zhang, Y. and Liu, F. (2005) Hydrochemical characteristics and salinity of groundwater in the Ejina Basin, Northwestern China. Environmental Geology, 48, 665-675. doi:10.1007/s00254-005-0001-7
[33] Kortatsi, B.K (2007) Hydrochemical framework of groundwater in the Ankobra Basin, Ghana. Aquatic Geochemistry, 13, 41-74. doi:10.1007/s10498-006-9006-4
[34] Fitts, C.R. (2002) Groundwater science. Academic Press, New York.
[35] Appelo, C.A.J. and Postma, D. (2005) Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution. 2nd Edition, A.A, Balkema, Rotterdam. doi:10.1201/9781439833544
[36] Hiscock, K.M. (2005) Hydrogeology: Principles and practice. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.