Surface and Bulk Defects in Cr-Mn Iron Alloy Cast in Metal and Sand Moulds: Characterization by Positron Annihilation Techniques


High chromium (Cr: 16% - 19%) iron alloy with 5% and 10% manganese (Mn) fabricated in metal and sand moulds by induction melting technique were investigated for defects microstructure both in the as-cast and heat treated conditions. Non-destructive techniques namely Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy and slow positron Doppler Broadening studies were employed to characterize the defects in the bulk as well as surface of the alloy and their influence of metallurgical parameters. The Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy data reveals that the defect concentration is higher for sand mould alloy samples compared to metal mould ones. The reasons for fewer defects in metal mould are attributed to faster heat transfer in the metal mould. Further, heat treatment yielded spherodization of carbides in the matrix resulting in reduced defects concentration. The S-parameter profiles from Doppler Broadening studies suggest defect concentration at the surface is less in 5% Manganese and near absence of any modification of defect structure following heat treatment in 10% Manganese sample closer to surface.

Share and Cite:

P. Sampathkumaran, S. Seetharamu, C. Ranganathaiah, J. Raj, P. Pujari, P. Maheshwari, D. Dutta and S. Kishore, "Surface and Bulk Defects in Cr-Mn Iron Alloy Cast in Metal and Sand Moulds: Characterization by Positron Annihilation Techniques," Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2011, pp. 136-143. doi: 10.4236/jsemat.2011.13021.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] P. R. Krishnamoorrthy, S. Seetharamu and P. Sampa- thkumaran, “Erosion Wear in Thermal Power Plants”, 55th R and D Session of CBI & P, India, July 1999, p. 1.
[2] J. T. H. Pearce, “Structure and Wear Performance of Ab-rasion Resistant Chromium White Cast Irons,” AFS Transactions, Vol. 126, 1984, pp. 599-622.
[3] A. Basak, J. Pening and J. Dellewyns, “Effect of Ma- nganese on Wear Resistant and Impact Strength of 12% Chromium White Cast Iron,” AFS International Cast Metal Journal, 1981, p. 12.
[4] Y. Kawaguchi and Y. Shirai, “Fatigue Evaluation of Type 316 Stainless Steel Using Positron Annihilation Line Shape Analysis and ? ? Coincidence Positron Lifetime Measurement,” Journal of Nuclear Science and Technol-ogy, Vol. 39, No. 10, 2002, pp. 1033-1040. doi:10.3327/jnst.39.1033
[5] A. Van Veen, H. Schut, M. Clement, J. M. M. de Nijs, A. Kruseman and M. R. IJpma, “VEPFIT Applied to Depth Profiling Problems,” Applied Surface Science, Vol. 85, No. 2, 1995, pp. 216-224. doi:10.1016/0169-4332(94)00334-3
[6] P. Sampathkumaran, S. Seetharamu and Kishore, “Erosion and Abrasion Characteristics of High Manganese Chr- omium Irons,” Wear, Vol. 259, No. 11-6, 2005, pp. 70-77. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2005.03.001
[7] P. Hautojarvi, “Positrons in Solids,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979.
[8] W. Brandt and A. Dupasquier, “Positron Solid State Phy- sics,” North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983.
[9] P. K. Pujari, D. Sen, G. Amarendra, S. Abhaya, A. K. Pandey, D. Dutta and S. Mazumder, “Study of Pore Structure in Grafted Polymer Membranes Using Slow Positron Beam and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Techniques,” Nuclear Instruments Methods Physics Re- search B, Vol. 254, No. 2, 2007, pp. 278-282. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.11.052
[10] M. Tashiro, Y. Honda, T. Yamaguchi, P. K. Pujari, N. Kimura, T. Kozawa, G. Isoyama and S. Tagawa, “Development of a short-Pulsed Slow Positron Beam for Application to Polymer Films,” Radiation Physics Che-mistry, Vol. 60, No. 4-5, 2001, pp. 529-533. doi:10.1016/S0969-806X(00)00403-5
[11] H. B. Ravikumar, C. Ranganathaiah, G. N. Kumaraswa- my and Siddaramaiah, “Influence of Free Volume on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy/Poly (Methylmeth- Acrylate) Blends,” Journal of Material Science, Vol. 40, No. 24, 2005, pp. 6523-6527. doi:10.1007/s10853-005-1707-3
[12] P. Kirkegaard, N. J. Pederson and M. Eldrup, “PATFIT- 88: Riso National Laboratory Report PM-2724,” Riso National Laboratory, Riso, 1989.
[13] M. J. Puska, and R. M. Nieminen, “Theory of Positrons in Solids and on Solid Surfaces,” Reviews of modern Physics, Vol. 66, No. 3, 1994, pp.841-897. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.66.841
[14] S. Shikata, S. Fujii, L. Wei and S. Tanigawa, “Effect of Annealing Method on Vacancy Type Defects in Si Im-planted GaAs Studies by a Slow Positron Beam,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 31, 1992, pp. 732-736. doi:10.1143/JJAP.31.732
[15] P. Sampathkumaran, C. Ranganathaiah, S. Seetharamu and Kishore, “Effect of Increased Manganese Addition and Mould Type on the Slurry Erosion Characteristics of Cr-Mn Iron Systems,” Bulletin Materials Science, Vol. 31, No. 7, 2008, pp. 1001-1006. doi:10.1007/s12034-008-0157-3
[16] S. Seetharamu, P. Sampathkumaran and R. K. Kumar, “Erosion Resistant of Permanent Moulded High Chro-mium Iron,” Wear, Vol. 267, No. 1, 1995, pp. 159-167. doi:10.1016/0043-1648(95)07173-3
[17] S. N. Kulkarni and K. Radhakrishna, “Evaluation of Met-al-Mould Interfacial Heat Transfer during the Solidification of Aluminium –4.5% Copper alloy Castings Cast in CO2-Sand Moulds,” Materials Science, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2005, pp. 821-838.
[18] E. Raask, “Erosion Wear in Coal Utilization,” Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, 1988.
[19] R. Vaidyanathan, J. P. Schaffer and B. Thanaboonsombut, “A Doppler Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy Study of Magnetically Induced Recovery in Nickel,” Atlanta, Easton, 1993.
[20] P. J. Schultz, K. G. Lynn, “Interaction of Positron beams with Surfaces, Thin Films, and Interfaces,” Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1989, pp. 701-779. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.60.701
[21] M. Zhang, R. Scholz, H. Weng and C. Lin, “Defects and Voids in He Implanted Si Studied by Slow Positron Annihilation and Transmission Electron Microscopy,” Applied Physics A, Vol. 66, No. 5, 1998, pp. 521-525. doi:10.1007/s003390050707
[22] C. He, T. Suzuki, E. Hamada, H. Kobayashi, K. Kondo, V. P. Shantarovich and Y. Ito, “Characterization of Poly- mer Films Using a Slow Positron Beam,” Materials Research Innovation, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2003, pp. 37-41.
[23] Y. C. Jean, R. Zhang, H. Cao, Jen-Pwu Yuan and Chia- Ming Huang, “Glass Transition of Polystyrene Near the Surface Studied by Slow-Positron-Annihilation-Spectro- Scopy,” Physical Reviews B, Vol. 56, No. 14, 1997, pp. 8459-8462. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.56.R8459

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.