Participation and Activity Rates: Monitoring Exposure Potential for Native Americans and Others in the United States
Joanna Burger
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.28116   PDF   HTML     4,484 Downloads   7,469 Views  


Managers and regulators are concerned about potential human health effects from exposure on lands contaminated by chemicals and radionuclides. Determining target cleanup levels is partly dependent upon future land use, and potential exposure from human use. This paper provides data from surveys of activity patterns of people attending festivals in four states, located in the vicinity of Department of Energy facilities. There were significant differences in both participation rates, and activity rates as a function of both location and ethnicity that can be used by managers to track exposure, land use, and preferred activities on natural lands. In general, 1) a higher percent of Native Americans engaged in consumptive activities than others, 2) a higher percent of Caucasians engaged in some non-consumptive activities than Native Americans, 3) a higher percentage of Native Americans engaged in activities on sacred grounds, 4) activity rates were generally higher for Native Americans for consumptive activities and religious/cultural than for Caucasians, 5) fishing rates were higher than other consumptive activities, and camping/hiking were higher than other non-con- sumptive activities, and 6) hunting rates were higher in subjects from Idaho than elsewhere. Baseline human use is critical for monitoring potential exposure, and provides the basis for monitoring, risk assessment and future land use, and these data can be used by managers for assessment and management. Tracking changes over time will reflect changing recreational, subsistence, and cultural/religious trends that relate to land use, public perceptions, and exposure.

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J. Burger, "Participation and Activity Rates: Monitoring Exposure Potential for Native Americans and Others in the United States," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 8, 2011, pp. 1009-1020. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.28116.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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