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Determination of Major Carotenoids in Processed Tropical Leafy Vegetables Indigenous to Africa

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DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.28109    6,421 Downloads   12,214 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Tropical leafy-vegetables (n = 21) indigenous to Cameroon, Africa, were collected, processed, and analyzed for carotenoids by HPLC. The processing techniques used were oven drying; sun-drying; squeeze-washing and boiling; and a combination of boiling in alkaline salt and squeeze-washing. Carotenoids included lutein, α-carotene, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene (all-trans, 13-cis, and 9-cis), which varied by species (P < 0.001). With the exception of P. purpureum and H. sabdarifa, lutein and β-carotene were the predominant carotenoids. In the oven dried vegetables, β-carotene was between 15% and 30% of total carotenoids and the values ranged from 7.46 ± 0.04 in T. indica to 39.86 ± 2.32 mg/100 g DW in V. oleifera. Lutein concentrations for these leafy vegetables ranged from 11.87 ± 0.7 in H. sabdarifa to 75.0 ± 3.6 mg/100 g DW in V. colorata and made up > 40% of total carotenoids. Traditional preparation and processing procedures led to significant losses of carotenoids and β-carotene was most affected during sun-drying with a maximum of 73.8% loss observed in A. acanthochiton.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

V. Djuikwo, R. Ejoh, I. Gouado, C. Mbofung and S. Tanumihardjo, "Determination of Major Carotenoids in Processed Tropical Leafy Vegetables Indigenous to Africa," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 8, 2011, pp. 793-802. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.28109.

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