Share This Article:

Measurement of Radioactivity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in Soil of Different Geological Origins in Northern India

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:207KB) PP. 960-966
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.27110    4,374 Downloads   8,063 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Radioactivity of the nuclides 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was measured in soil by γ-ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. A criterion was set in order to analyse soil samples from plain, semi-hilly and hilly areas in northern India. More than three γ-ray energy peaks were used for the determination of 226Ra and 232Th activity concentrations to obtain more accurate results. Some of these peaks have interfering energies, which was caused by the limited resolution of the detector, but they were resolved theoretically and used in the analysis because of their significance in reducing the random error to its minimum level. Relationships between the measured radionuclides have been discussed elaborately. Radionuclides 238U and 226Ra were found in disequilibrium with ratio of specific activities 238U/, 226Ra) less than unity for most of the samples. In some cases this disequilibrium may be significant enough to modify the γ-ray dose factors.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

R. Mehra and M. Singh, "Measurement of Radioactivity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in Soil of Different Geological Origins in Northern India," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 7, 2011, pp. 960-966. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.27110.

References

[1] M. Tufail, N. Akhtar and N. Waqas, “Measurement of Terrestrial Radiation for Assessment of Gamma Dose from Cultivated and Barren Saline Soils of Faisalabad of Pakistan,” Radiation Measurement, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2006, pp. 443-451. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2005.10.007
[2] UNSCEAR, “United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiations,” United Nations, New York, 2000.
[3] M. Sohrabi, “Recent Radiological Studies of High Level Natural Radiation Areas of Rasmar,” Proceeding of the International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation, Rasmar, IAEA, Vienna, 1993.
[4] C. M. Sunta, “A Review of the Studies of High Background Areas of the S-W Coast of India,” Proceeding of the International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation, Rasmar, IAEA, Vienna, 1993.
[5] H. Zhu, H. Huang, J. Song , J. Li, J. Zhang, J. Huang, Y. Zha and Y. Guo, ”Gamma Radiation Levels Around the Highest Background Area in Poland,” Proceeding of the International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation, Rasmar, IAEA, Vienna, 1993.
[6] M. J. Anagnostakis, E. P. Hinis, D. J. Karangelos, N. P. Petropoulos, P. K. Rouni, S. E. Simopoulos and Z. S. Zunic, “Determination of Depleted Uranium in Environmental Samples by Gamma-Spectroscopic Techniques,” Archive of Oncology, Vol. 9, 2001, pp. 231-236.
[7] A. S. Murray and M. J. Aitken, “Analysis of Low-Level Natural Radioactivity in Small Mineral Samples for Use in Thermoluminescence Dating, Using High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1988, pp. 145-158. doi:10.1016/0883-2889(88)90160-8
[8] Z. Papp, Z. Dezso and S. Daroczy, “Measurement of the Radioactivity of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 137Cs and 40K in Soil Using Direct Ge(Li) γ-Ray Spectrometry,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 222, No. 1-2, 1997, pp. 171-176. doi:10.1007/BF02034265
[9] A. Navas, J .Soto and J. Machin, “238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th and 40K Activities in Soil Profiles of the Flysch Sector (Central Spanish Pyrenees),” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2002, pp. 579-589. doi:10.1016/S0969-8043(02)00131-8
[10] M. Dowdall and J. O’Dea, “226Ra/238U Disequilibrium in an Upland Organic Soil Exhibiting Elevated Natural Radioactivity,” Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2002, pp. 91-104. doi:10.1016/S0265-931X(01)00038-8
[11] J. Beretka and P.J. Mathew, “Natural Radioactivity of Australian Building Materials, Industrial Wastes and by-Products,” Health Physics, Vol. 48, No. 1, 1985, pp. 87-95. doi:10.1097/00004032-198501000-00007
[12] OECD, “Exposure to Radiation from the Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials,” Report by a Group of Experts of the OECD, Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris, 1979.
[13] UNSCEAR, “United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Ionizing Radiation Sources and Biological Effects,” Reports to general assembly, United Nations, New York, 1993.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.