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Qi-Deficiency, Qi-Stagnation, Qi-Flowback, Blood Deficiency, and Fluid Retention in Patients with Depression, Psychiatric Disorders, or Psychosomatic Disorders

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DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.26099    4,305 Downloads   7,593 Views   Citations


The purpose of this study is to clarify the Qi-blood-fluid patterns of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, somatoform disorders and psychosomatic disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, etc. according to oriental medicine. The subjects were all new cases who consulted the psychosomatic clinic of Kyushu University Hospital from June 2000 to March 2001. Qi-deficiency, Qi-stagnation, Qi-flowback, blood deficiency, and fluid retention scores were calculated from the chief complaints and answers to the 102 questions of the Kyudai Medical Index (KMI), according to Terasawa’s Qi-blood-fluid scoring system. Since the results of physical examinations were not investigated, items requiring physical examination in Terasawa’s criteria were excluded from the calculation. The Qi-flowback, blood deficiency and fluid retention scores were significantly higher in females than males. Strong correlations were observed between Qi-deficiency and Qi-stagnation in males and between blood deficiency and fluid retention in both sexes. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that Qi-deficiency and Qi-stagnation in both sexes, especially Qi-deficiency, in males, were associated with major depression. Qi-flowback in females only and blood deficiency in males only were associated with anxiety disorders or a high State-trait Anxiety Inventory score. In females, Qi-flowback was also associated with somatoform disorders and irritable bowel syndrome. These results may be of assistance in treating occidental diseases in an oriental manner.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Kondo, T. , Tokunaga, S. , Sugahara, H. , Yoshimasu, K. , Akamine, M. , Kanemitsu, Y. , Fujisawa, K. , Masuda, Y. & Kubo, C. (2011). Qi-Deficiency, Qi-Stagnation, Qi-Flowback, Blood Deficiency, and Fluid Retention in Patients with Depression, Psychiatric Disorders, or Psychosomatic Disorders. Psychology, 2, 643-659. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.26099.


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