Influence of Bath Temperature, Deposition Time and S/Cd Ratio on the Structure, Surface Morphology, Chemical Composition and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Elaborated by Chemical Bath Deposition
F. Ouachtari, A. Rmili, B. Elidrissi, A. Bouaoud, H. Erguig, P. Elies
DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.29131   PDF   HTML     8,332 Downloads   15,650 Views   Citations


Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method, using anhydrous cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and thiourea (CS(NH2)2) as sources of cadmium and sulphur ions respectively. The influence of bath temperature (Tb), deposition time (td) aSnd [S]/[Cd] ratio in the solution on the structural, morphological, chemical composition and optical properties of these films were investigated. XRD studies revealed that all the deposited films were polycrystalline with hexagonal structure and exhibited (002) preferential orientation. The films deposited under optimum conditions (Tb = 75?C, td = 60 min and [S]/[Cd] ratio = 2.5) were relatively well crystallized. These films showed large final thickness and their surface morphologies were composed of small grains with an approximate size of 20 to 30 nm and grains grouped together to form large clusters. EDAX analysis revealed that these films were nonstoichiometric with a slight sulphur deficiency. These films exhibited also a transmittance value about 80% in the visible and infra red range.

Share and Cite:

F. Ouachtari, A. Rmili, B. Elidrissi, A. Bouaoud, H. Erguig and P. Elies, "Influence of Bath Temperature, Deposition Time and S/Cd Ratio on the Structure, Surface Morphology, Chemical Composition and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Films Elaborated by Chemical Bath Deposition," Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 2 No. 9, 2011, pp. 1073-1082. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2011.29131.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. Contreras, M. Romero, B. To, F. Hasoon, R. Noufi, S. Ward and K. Ramanathan, “Optimization of CBD CdS Process in High-Efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2-Based Solar Cells,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 403-404, No. 579, 2002, pp. 204-211.
[2] A. Davis, K. Vaccaro, H. Dauplaise, W. Waters and J. Lorenzo, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 146, No. 3, 1999, pp. 1046-1053.
[3] O. Vigil-Galan, J. Ximello-Quiebras, J. Aguilar-Hernandez, G. Contreras-Puente, A. Cruz-Orea, J. Mendoza-Alvarez, J. Car-dona-Bedoya, C. Ruiz and V. Bermudez, Semiconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 21, 2006, pp. 76.
[4] M. Ilieva, D. Dimova-Malinovska, B. Ranguelov and I. Markov, “High Temperature Electrodeposition of Cds Thin Films on Conductive Glass Substrates,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 11, No. 49, 1999, pp. 10025-10031.
[5] A. Aschour, Turkish Journal of Physics, Vol. 17, No. 8, 2003, pp. 551-558.
[6] B. Pradhan, A. K. Sharma and A. K. Ray, “Conduction Studies on Chemical Bath Deposition Nanocrystalline Cds Thin Films,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 304, No. 2, 2007, pp. 388-392.
[7] P. Boieriu, R. Sporken, Y. Xin, N. Browning and S. Sivanan-than, “Wurtzite CdS on CdTe Grown by Molecular Beam Epi-taxy,” Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2000, pp. 718-722.
[8] H. Uda, H. Yonezawa, Y. Ohtsubo, M. Kosaka and H. Sono-mura, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 75, 2003, pp. 219-226.
[9] M. Sasagawa and Y. Nosaka, “The Effect of Chelating Reagents on the Layer-by-Layer Formation of Cds Films in the Electroless and Electrochemical Deposition Processes,” Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 48, No.5, 2003, pp. 483-488.
[10] R. W. Birkmire, B. E. McCandless and S. S. Hegedus, “Opti-mization of Vapor Post-Deposition Processing for Evaporated CdS/CdTe Solar Cells,” Solar Energy, Vol. 12, 1992, pp. 37-45.
[11] G. Hodes, “Chemical Solution Deposition of Semiconductors Films,” Marcel Dekker, Inc., Basel, New York, 2003.
[12] ASTM DATA (6-0314).
[13] R. Zhai, S. Wang, H. Xu, H. Wang and H. Yan, “Rapid Formation of CdS, ZnS Thin Films by Microwave- Assisted Chemical Bath Deposition,” Matarials Letters, Vol. 59, No. 12, 2005, pp. 1497-1501.
[14] O. Oladeji, L. Chow, J. R. Liu, W. K. Chu, A. N. P. Bustamante, C. Fredricksen and A. F. Schulte, “Comparative Study of Cds Thin Films Deposited by Single, Continuous, and Multiple Dip Chemical Processes,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 359, No. 2, 2000, pp. 154-159.
[15] M. Ichimura, F. Goto and E. Arai, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 85, No. 10, 1999, pp. 7411-7417.
[16] C. D. Lokhande, A. Ennaoui, P. S. Patil, M. Giersig, M. Muller, K. Diesner and H. Tribursch, “Process and Characterisation of Chemical Bath Deposited Manganese Sulphide (MnS) Thin Films,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 330, No. 2, 1998, pp. 70-75.
[17] S. Prabahar and M. Dhanam, “CdS Thin Films from Two Dif-ferent Chemical Baths-Structural and Optical Analysis,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 285, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 41-48.
[18] L. D. Kadam and P. S. Patil, “Thickness-Dependent Properties of Sprayed Cobalt Oxide Thin Films,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 68, No. 1-3, 2001, pp. 225-232.
[19] D. Fan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. Cheng. B. Wong. H. Yan, “Preparation of Crystalline MnS Thin ?lms by Chemical Bath Deposition,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 80, 2003, pp. 44-47.
[20] R. Mendoza-Pérez, G. Santana-Rodriguez, J. Sastre-Hernan- dez, A. Morales-Acevedo, A. Arias-Carbajal, O. Vigil- Galan, J. C. Alonso and G. Contreras-Puente, “Effects of Thiourea Concen-tration on CdS Thin Films Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition for CdTe Solar Cells,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 480-481, 2005, pp. 173- 176.
[21] F. Y. Liu, Y. Q. Lai, J. Liu, B. Wang, S. S. Kuang, Z. A. Zhang, J. Li and Y. X. Liu, “Characterization of Chemical Bath Depo-sited CdS Thin Films at Different Deposition Temperature,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 493, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 305-308.
[22] K. S. Ramaiah, R. D. Pilkington, A. E. Hill, R. D. Tomlinson and A. K. Bhatnagar, Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 68, 2001, pp. 22-30.
[23] J. Tauc, “Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors,” Plenum Press, New York, 1974, pp. 159-220.
[24] L. Wenyi, C. Xun, C. Qiulong and Z. Zhibin, Materials Letters, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2005, pp. 1-5.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.