Share This Article:

The effects of 90-day feeding of D-psicose syrup in male wistar rats

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:113KB) PP. 66-71
DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.12010    5,377 Downloads   10,035 Views   Citations


D-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that D-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute and chronic toxicity testing in rats, D-psicose is classified as an ordinary and safe substance. Recently, we developed a high D-psicose syrup (PS) made from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the alkaline isomerization method. However, the safety of PS as a food additive has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the effects of 90-day feeding of PS in male Wistar rats. The rats were fed diets containing 3% D-psicose (control) or 4.3% PS for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the control and PS group. The weights of the tissues did not differ between the two dietary groups. In clinical chemistry and hematological analyses, no differences were found between the control and PS groups. No gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 4.3% PS. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of PS in rats fed a diet containing 4.3% PS for 90 days.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Matsuo, T. , Ishii, R. and Shirai, Y. (2011) The effects of 90-day feeding of D-psicose syrup in male wistar rats. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 1, 66-71. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.12010.


[1] Cree, G..M. and Perlin, A.S. (1968) O-Isopropylidene derivatives of D-allulose (D-psicose) and D-erythro-hexopyranose-2, 3-diulose. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry, 4, 765-770.
[2] Binkley, W.W. (1963) The fate of cane juice simple sugars during molasses formation. IV. Probable conversion of D-fructose to D-psicose. International Sugar Journal, 65, 105-106.
[3] Miller, B.S. and Swain, T. (1965) Chromatographic analyses of the free amino acids, organic acids and sugars in wheat plant extracts. Journal of the Science of Food and Agricalture, 11: 344-348.
[4] Hough, L. and Stacey, B.E. (1966) Variation in the allitol content of Itea plants during photosynthesis. Phytochemistry, 5, 171-175.
[5] Eble, T.E., Hoeksema, H., Boyack, G.A. and Savage, G.M. (1959) Psicofuranine I. Discovery, isolation, and properties. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy, 9, 419-420.
[6] Granstrom, T.B., Takata, G., Tokuda, M. and Izumori, K. (2004) Izumoring: a novel and complete strategy for bioproduction of rare sugars. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 97, 89-94.
[7] Matsuo, T., Suzuki, H., Hashiguchi, M. and Izumori, K. (2002) D-Psicose is a rare sugar that provides no energy to growing rats. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 48, 77-80.
[8] Matsuo, T., Baba, Y., Hashiguchi, M., Takeshita, K., Izumori, K. and Suzuki, H. (2001) Less body fat accumulation with D-psicose diet versus D-fructose diet. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 30, 55-65.
[9] Matsuo, T. and Izumori, K. (2006) Effects of dietary D-psicose on diurnal variation in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 70, 2081-2085.
[10] Toyoda, Y., Mori, S., Umemura, N., Futamura, Y., Inoue, H., Hata, T., Miwa, I., Mura,o K., Nishiyama, A. and Tokuda, M. (2010) Suppression of blood glucose levels by D-psicose in glucose tolerance test in diabetic rats. Japanese Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 38, 261-269.
[11] Matsuo, T., Tanaka, T., Hashiguchi, M., Izumori, K. and Suzuki, H. (2002) Effects of oral acute administration and subchronic feeding of several levels of D-psicose in rats. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 48, 512-516.
[12] Oshima, H., Kimura, I. and Izumori, K. (2006) Synthesis and structure analysis of novel disaccharides containing D-psicose produced by endo-1, 4-β-D-xylanase from Aspergillus sojae. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 101, 280-283.
[13] Oshima, H., Kimura, I. and Izumori, K. (2006) Psicose contents in various food products and its origin. Food Science and Technology Research, 12, 137-143.
[14] Yagi, K. and Matsuo, T. (2009) The study on long-term toxicity of D-psicose in rats. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 45, 271-277.
[15] Ishii, R., Shirai, Y. and Matsuo, T. (2011) The 90-day oral toxicity of D-psicose in male Wistar rats. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, in press.
[16] Iida, T., Kishimoto, Y., Yoshikawa, Y., Okuma, K., Yagi, K., Matsuo, T. and Izumori, K. (2007) Estimation of maximum non-effect level of D-psicose in causing diarrhea in human subjects. Journal of Japanese Council for Advanced Food Ingredients Research, 10, 10-15.
[17] Goldsmith, L.A. (2000) Acute and subchronic toxicity of sucralose. Food Chemical Toxicology, 38, S53-S69.
[18] Mann, S.W., Yuschak, M.M., Amyes, S.J.G., Aughton, P. and Finn, J.P. (2000) A combined chronic toxicity/ carcinogenic study of sucralose in Spragure-Dawley rats. Food Chemical Toxicology, 38: S71-S89.
[19] Kevin Tidgewell, K., Clark, B.R. and Gerwick, W.H. (2010) The natural products chemistry of cyanobacteria. Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2, 141-181.
[20] Haydak, M.H. (1970) Honey bee nutrition. Annual Review of Entomology, 15, 143-156.
[21] Takenaka, T. (1982) Chemical composition of royal jelly. Honeybee Sciences, 3, 69-74.
[22] Shinoda, M., Nakajin, S. Oikawa, T., Sato, K., Kamogawa, A. and Akiyama, Y. (1978) Biochemical studies on vasodilative factor in royal jelly. Yakugaku Zasshi, 98, 139-145.
[23] Kamakura, M., Maebuchi, M., Ozasa, S., Komori, M., Ogawa, T., Sakaki, T. and Moriya, T. (2005) Influence of royal Jelly on mouse hepatic gene expression and safety assessment with a DNA microarray. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 51, 148-155.
[24] Ruiz-Matute, A.I., Weiss, M., Sammatoro, D., Finely, J. and Sanz, M.L. (2010) Carbohydrate composition of high-fructose corn syrups (HFCS) used for bee feeding: effect on honey composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 7317-7322.
[25] Tappy, L., Kim, A.L., Tran, C. and Paquot, N. (2010) Fructose and metabolic diseases: New findings, new questions. Nutriton, 26, 1044-1049.
[26] Moon, H.J., Jeya, M., Kim, I.W. and Lee, J.K. (2010) Biotechnological production of erythritol and its applications. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 86, 1017-1025

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.