rnings did not increase any additional work load, where 7 participants felt that it will take more time to get used to the warning messages. 80% participants appreciated the Safe Left-turn Maneuver Message more than the Advanced Warning Message. They also mentioned that the message content were clear and user-friendly. The survey results provided a positive indication of participants on the usage of in-vehicle audio messages for intersection safety and to recognize the traffic situation earlier especially in an obstructed or invisible traffic situation.

9. Conclusions

In this paper, a perceptual framework of in-vehicle collision warning message as a left-turn driving aid has been outlined and deployed through a driving simulator test to enhance safety at the urban intersections. From the comparative statistical analysis, values of mean speed of 30 participants showed a significant impact on driving behavior depending on driver’s reaction in the message scenarios. Moreover, the comparative analysis also showed that the ambience of night-time scenarios contribute to the effectiveness of performance measures, as most of the participants showed different driving pattern at night-time. In terms of mean acceleration, the baseline scenarios have more peaks in the curves especially after the delivery of Safe Left-turn Maneuver Message, which demonstrates that drivers accelerate and decelerate randomly as they were unsure on upcoming situations which cost more vehicular emissions.

With the impact of this particular warning message, most of them uniformly accelerate and make the turn safely. Most importantly, it had been observed that 80% of participants were able to make the turn in a short time than the baseline scenarios which contributed in reduction of travel time. In addition, the questionnaire survey and the collision analysis showed a promising possibility for this aid at left-turn movement. Considering the positive results and discussions of this experiment and utilizing the prospects and advantages of V2V technology, the designed audio warning would assist drivers to determine if a safe gap is available to execute the left-turn by providing messages depending on the availability of vehicles in opposite direction. To further investigate the potentiality of this type of technology, road test with a diverse demographic representation should be conducted to validate the operational impact of driving behavior with more performance measurement analysis in real environment.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge that this research is supported in part by the United States Tier 1 University Transportation Center TranLIVE #DTRT12GUTC17/ KLK900-SB-003, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) under grants #1137732. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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