Carbonization of Chlorinated Organic Residual Liquid for Energy Source Generation

DOI: 10.4236/msce.2015.312014   PDF   HTML   XML   2,404 Downloads   2,803 Views   Citations


Chlorinated organic residual liquid is produced from the distillation process of new refrigerants production. It is difficult to be treated by traditional water treatment process and incineration process. In this study, a carbonization process at atmospheric pressure was used to convert this residual liquid to carbonaceous product and organic gas in 2 h at 230℃ or 260℃. The carbonaceous product was characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and thermo gravimetric analysis. The element composition and the high heat value of these products were similar to anthracite and lignite, respectively, showing that they could be used as alternative fuels. The components of organic gas were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the gas had potential for incineration.

Share and Cite:

Ge, Y. , Zhang, W. , Xue, G. and Zhao, J. (2015) Carbonization of Chlorinated Organic Residual Liquid for Energy Source Generation. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 3, 95-108. doi: 10.4236/msce.2015.312014.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Hashemi, H., Babaee, S., Mohammadi, A.H., Naidoo, P. and Ramjugernath, D. (2015) Clathrate Hydrate Dissociation Conditions of Refrigerants R404A, R406A, R408A and R427A: Experimental Measurements and Thermodynamic Modeling. The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 90, 193-198.
[2] Mattes, T.E., Alexander, A.K. and Coleman, N.V. (2010) Aerobic Biodegradation of the Chloroethenes: Pathways, Enzymes, Ecology, and Evolution. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 34, 445-475.
[3] Maymó-Gatell, X., Nijenhuis, I. and Zinder, S.H. (2011) Reductive Dechlorination of Cis-1,2-dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride by “Dehalococcoides Ethenogenes”. Environmental Science & Technology, 35, 516-521.
[4] Djebbar, K., Zertal, A. and Sehili, T. (2006) Photocatalytic Degradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyactic Acid and 4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic Acid in Water by Using TiO2. Environmental Technology, 27, 1191-1197.
[5] Arnold, W.A., Winget, P. and Cramer, C.J. (2002) Reductive Dechlorination of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane. Environmental Science & Technology, 36, 3536-3541.
[6] Su, C. and Puls, R. (1999) Kinetics of Trichloroethene Reduction by Zerovalent Iron and Tin: Pretreatment Effect, Apparent Activation Energy, and Intermediate Products. Environmental Science & Technology, 33, 163-168.
[7] Lowry, G.V. and Reinhard, M. (1999) Hydrodehalogenation of 1- to 3-Carbon Halogenated Organic Compounds in Water Using a Palladium Catalyst and Hydrogen Gas. Environmental Science & Technology, 33, 1905-1910.
[8] Sevon, D.W. and Cooper, D.J. (1991) Modeling Combustion Efficiency in a Circulating Fluid Bed Liquid Incinerator. Chemical Engineering Science, 46, 2983-2996.
[9] Swithenbank, J., Basire, S., Wong, W.Y., et al. (1999) Sludge Incineration in a Spinning Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Proceedings of the 15th International FBC Conference, Savannah, 16-19 May 1999.
[10] Bujak, J. (2015) Thermal Treatment of Medical Waste in a Rotary Kiln. Journal of Environmental Management, 162, 139-147.
[11] Mumme, J., Eckervogt, L., Pielert, J., et al. (2011) Hydrothermal Carbonization of Anaerobically Digested Maize Silage. Bioresource Technology, 102, 9255-9260.
[12] Funke, A. and Ziegler, F. (2010) Hydrothermal Carbonization of Biomass: A Summary and Discussion of Chemical Mechanisms for Process Engineering. Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining, 4, 160-177.
[13] Libra, J.A., Ro, K.S., Kammann, C., et al. (2010) Hydrothermal Carbonization of Biomass Residuals: A Comparative Review of the Chemistry, Processes and Applications of Wet and Dry Pyrolysis. Biofuels, 2, 71-106.
[14] Dinjus, E., Kruse, A. and Troger, N. (2011) Hydrothermal Carbonization-1. Influence of Lignin in Lignocelluloses. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 34, 2037-2043.
[15] Titirici, M.M., Thomas, A., Yu, S.H., Muller, J.O. and Antonietti, M. (2007) A Direct Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbons with Bicontinuous Pore Morphology from Crude Plant Material by Hydrothermal Carbonization. Chemistry of Materials, 19, 4205-4212.
[16] Li, M., Li, W. and Liu, S.X. (2011) Hydrothermal Synthesis, Characterization, and KOH Activation of Carbon Spheres from Glucose. Carbohydrate Research, 346, 999-1004.
[17] Li, X.B., Biswas, S. and Drzal, L.T. (2013) High Temperature Vacuum Annealing and Hydrogenation Modification of Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets. Journal of Engineering, 2013, 1-10.
[18] Silva, J.D.O., Filho, G.R., Meireles, C.D.S., et al. (2012) Thermal Analysis and FTIR Studies of Sewage Sludge Produced in Treatment Plants. The Case of Sludge in the City of Uberlandia-MG, Brazil. Thermochimica Acta, 528, 72-75.
[19] Van Krevelen, D.W. (1993) Coal. 3rd Edition, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.
[20] Channiwala, S.A. and Parikh, P.P. (2002) A Unified Correlation for Estimating HHV of Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels. Fuel, 81, 1051-1063.
[21] He, C., Giannis, A. and Wang, J.Y. (2013) Conversion of Sewage Sludge to Clean Solid Fuel Using Hydrothermal Carbonization: Hydrochar Fuel Characteristics and Combustion Behavior. Applied Energy, 111, 257-266.
[22] Xu, M. and Sheng, C. (2011) Influences of the Heat-Treatment Temperature and Inorganic Matter on Combustion Characteristics of Cornstalk Biochars. Energy & Fuels, 26, 209-218.
[23] Biagini, E. and Tognotti, L. (2006) Comparison of Devolatilization/Char Oxidation and Direct Oxidation of Solid Fuels at Low Heating Rate. Energy & Fuels, 20, 986-992.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.