Yield and Quality of Forage Oat (Avena sativa L.) Cultivars as Affected by Seed Inoculation with Nitrogenous Strains


Nitrogen availability can be enhanced with the application of nitrogen fixing bacteria and it may be helpful in increasing forage yield and improving quality of oat. Therefore, a field trial to evaluate the effect of seed inoculation with nitrogen fixing bacteria on forage yield and quality of oat was carried out at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangements using three replications. The experiment was comprised of two integrated approaches. The first approach was oat cultivars consisting of four treatments, V1 (AVON), V2 (S-2000), V3 (S-2011) and V4 (PD2LV65) and the second approach was seed inoculation consisting of three treatments, S0 (control), S1 (Azotobacter spp.), S2 (Azospirillum spp.). Fisher’s analysis of variance technique was used for statistically interpretation of data by using least significant difference (LSD) test at 5% level of probability. Nitrogen fixing bacteria significantly affect the germination count (m2), plant height (cm), number of tillers (m2), number of leaves per tiller, leaf area per tiller (cm2), green forage yield (t·ha-1) and dry matter yield (t ha-1). The maximum green forage yield (85.2 t·ha-1), dry matter yield (14.1 t ·ha-1) and crude protein (11.5%) were recorded where Azotobacter inoculation was applied. The interaction between cultivars and nitrogenous strains was significant for green forage yield (t·ha-1), dry matter yield (t·ha-1) and crude protein (%). Conclusion showed that cultivar Sargodha-2011 which was inoculated with Azotobacter spp. gave higher forage yield of good quality.

Share and Cite:

Saleem, M. , Zamir, M. , Haq, I. , Irshad, M. , Khan, M. , Asim, M. , Zaman, Q. , Ali, I. , Khan, A. and Rehman, S. (2015) Yield and Quality of Forage Oat (Avena sativa L.) Cultivars as Affected by Seed Inoculation with Nitrogenous Strains. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 3251-3259. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.619316.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Zaman, Q., Hussain, M.N., Aziz, A. and Hayat, K. (2006) Performance of High Yielding Oat Cultivars under Agro-Ecological Conditions of D. I. Khan. Journal of Agricultural Research, 44, 29-35.
[2] Younas, M. and Yaqoob, M. (2005) Feed Resources of Livestock in the Punjab, Pakistan. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 17, Art. 18.
[3] Sial, M.A. and Aalam, M.Z. (2008) Livestock Feed Resources Scenario of Pakistan. Journal of Agricultural Research, 45, 199-203.
[4] Dost, M., Hussain, A., Khan, S. and Bhatti, M.B. (2004) Green Forage Yield, Dry Matter Yield and Chemical Composition of Oat with Advances in Maturity. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 37, 198-200.
[5] Douglas, C.D., Michael, A., Mullen, S.M.C. and James, J.H. (2001) Genotypic and Environmental Effects on Grain Yield and Quality of Oat Grown in North Dakota. Journalof Crop Science and Biotechnology, 41, 1066-1072.
[6] Haqqani, A.M., Ali, Z., Shafique, S., Zahid, S. and Baksh, A. (2003) Oat: A Forage of Winter Lean Period. Agric. Dig. Zari., 23, 15-23.
[7] Habib, G., Ahmad, T., Saba, I. and Akhter, N. (2003) Genotype Variation in the Yield and Nutritive Quality of Oat Forage. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 19, 419-422.
[8] Chohan, M.S.M., Nadeem, M., Khan, A.H. and Kainth, R.A. (2006) Performance of Pearl Millet (Pennisetumamericanum L.) Cultivars for Forage Yield. Journal of Agricultural Research, 44, 23-27.
[9] Pedo, I., Sgarbieri, V.C. and Gutkoski, L.C. (2000) Protein Evaluation of Four Oat (Avena sativa L.) Cultivars Adapted for Cultivation in the South of Brazil. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 53, 297-304.
[10] Tien, H.H., Hien, T.M., Son, M.T. and Herridge, D. (2000) Rhizobial Inoculation and N2 Fixation of Soybean and Mungbean in the Eastern Region of South Vietnam. In: Herridge, D., Ed., Inoculants and Nitrogen Fixation of Legumes in Vietnam, ACIAR Proceedings, Canberra, 29-36.
[11] Ozturk, A., Caglarand, O. and Sahin, F. (2003) Yield Response of Wheat and Barley to Inoculation of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria at Various Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 32, 166-266.
[12] Nowak, J. (2011) Review benefits of in Vitro Bacterization of Plant Tissue Culture with Microbial Inoculants. In Vitro Culture and Development Biology of Plant, 34, 122-123.
[13] Bhatti, M.B., Hussain, A. and Mohammad, D. (2002) Forage Production Potential of Different Oat Cultivars under Two Cut Systems. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 13, 184-190.
[14] Mahdi, S.S., Hassan, G.I., Samoon, H.A., Rather, A.D., Shoukat. and Zehra, B. (2010) Bio-Fertilizers in Organic Agriculture. Journalof Phytology, 2, 42-54.
[15] Catroux, G. (2001) Inoculant Quality Standards and Controls in France. Expert Consultation on Legume Inoculant Production and Quality Control, FAO, In. Thompson, J.A., Ed., FAO, Rome, 113-120.
[16] El-Lattief, E.A. (2012) Improving Bread Wheat Productivity and Reduce use of Mineral Nitrogen by Inoculation with Azotobacter and Azospirillum under Arid Environment in Upper Egypt. Int. Conf. App. Life Sci, 393-398.
[17] Belimov, Y., Holguin, G. and Bashan, L.E. (2004) Influence of Bacterial Inoculation in Upland Farming System of the Sikkim Himmalya. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 30, 379-384.
[18] Asghar, H.N., Zahir, Z.A., Arshad, M. and Khaliq, A. (2002) Relationship Between in Vitro Production of Auxins by Rhizobacteria and their Growth Promoting Activities in Brassica juncea L. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 35, 231-237.
[19] Toledo, M.V., Gozalez-Lopez, J., Moreno, J. and Ramos-Cormenzana, A. (2004) Effect of Inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum on Nitrogenase Activity of (Zea mays L.) Roots Grown in Agricultural Soils under Aseptic and Non-Sterile Conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 6, 170-173.
[20] Waseem-ul-hassan, S., Anees, S.M. and Bajoi, A.H. (2000) Evaluation of Oat Cultivars for High Yielding Green Forage under Environmental Conditions of Balochistan, Pakistan. Balochistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1, 15-21.
[21] Abbasdokht, H. (2008) The Study of Azotobacter chroococum Inoculation on Yield and Post-harvest Quality of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 44, 885-889.
[22] Ayub, M., Nadeem, M.A., Tahir, M., Ghafoor, A., Ahmad, Z. and Naeem M. (2010) Comparative Studies on the Growth, Forage Yield and Quality of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Cultivars under Irrigated Conditions of Faisalabad,Pakistan. Journal of Plant Sciences, 8, 94-97.
[23] Shaalan, M.N. (2005) Influence of Biofertilizer and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield and Seed Quality of (Nigella sativa L.) Plants. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 83, 811-828.
[24] Zafar, N. (2009) Forage Growth, Yield and Quality Performance of Different Oat (Avena sativa L.) Cultivars under Agro-Ecological Conditions of Faisalabad, Pakistan.Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 22, 733-737.
[25] El-Zieny, O.A.H., El-Behari, U.A. and Zaky, M.H. (2001) Influence of bBiofertilizer on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Tomato Grown under Plastic House. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 26, 1749-1763.
[26] Piri, I. and Tavassoli, A. (2012) Determining the Best Management of Nitrogen Fertilizer Consumption and Harvest Time of Forage Yield of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) in Shirvan Region.AfricanJournal of Microbiology Research, 6, 2287-2293.
[27] El-Toukhy, S.A. and Abdel-Azeem, H.H. (2000) Response of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to Biofertilization Technology. Annals Agricultural Sciences, 2, 539-559.
[28] Farboodi, M., Alizadeh, M., Faramarzi, A., Shahrokhi, S. and Ali, R. (2011) Azotobacter Inoculation, Nitrogen Fertilizer and Manure Levels Effects on Morphological Characteristics of Corn SC-647, in a Greenhouse Study. Int. Conf. Biol. Environ. Chem, Vol. 24, IACSIT Press, Singapore, 23-26.
[29] Mandal, S.R., Mukherjee, A.K. and Patra, B.C. (2000) Effect of Biofertilizer (Azotobacter) Inoculation on Forage Yield and Quality of Oat. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4, 524-527.
[30] Haider, G. (2008) Effect of Different Sowing Techniques on Growth, Forage Yield and Quality of Four Oat (Avena sativa L.) Cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9, 123-128.
[31] Sharma, K.C. (2009) Response of Oat (Avena sativa L.) to Azospirillum Inoculant at Different Levels of Nitrogen Application. Indian Journal Agricultural Sciences, 79, 823-827.
[32] Shehata, M.M. and El-Khawas, S.A. (2003) Effect of Two Biofertilizers on Growth Parameters, Yield Characters, Nitrogenous Components, Nucleic Acids Content, Minerals, Oil Content, Protein Profiles and DNA Banding Pattern of Sunflower Yield. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 6, 1257-1268.
[33] Ayub, M., Shehzad, M., Nadeem, M.A., Pervez, M., Naeem, M. and Sarwar, N. (2011) Comparative Study on Forage Yield and Quality of Different Oat (Avena sativa L.)Cultivars under Agro Ecological Conditions of Faisalabad, Pakistan. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6, 3388-3391.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.