Assessment of Genetic Relationship and Application of Computational Algorithm to Assess Functionality of Non-Synonymous Substitutions in DQA2 Gene of Cattle, Sheep and Goats


The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a fundamental part of the immune system in nearly all vertebrates. DQA2 is a member of the MHC complex and an important candidate gene involved in susceptibility/resistance to various diseases. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating computationally molecular genetic variation of DQA2 gene of cattle, sheep and goats especially on its evolution and differentiation within and among species as well as the attendant effects of the polymorphism on the function of DQA2 gene. A total of thirty three DQA2 nucleotide sequences comprising cattle (10), sheep (12) and goats (11) were retrieved from the GenBank. Forty seven amino acid substitutions of the wild type alleles located in the putative peptide coding region of caprine DQA2 alleles were obtained from the alignment of deduced amino acid sequences of goats. Out of these, eleven amino acid substitutions (H14L, H14R, L34M, E35L, G56S, G56R, 161V, A62E, D69Q, T72N and T72G) were returned neutral; an indication that they did not impair protein function. The Expected Accuracy (EA) ranged from 53% - 87%. For sheep, sixteen amino acid substitutions (A11P, A11T, A11G, A11M, L14S, L14T, V27L, V27S, G35S, S46T, D55E, L57T, L57A, L57G, K65Q and V68I) appeared beneficial while the rest forty seven appeared harmful (EA ranged from 53% - 93%). Twenty four amino acid substitutions did not impair the function of protein while seventy seven substitutions appeared to have a negative effect on the function of protein of cattle (EA ranged from 53% - 94%). The phylogeny based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences of DQA2 gene revealed the close relatedness of the caprine, ovine and bovine species. The present knowledge would be relevant for performing further genotype-phenotype research as well as pharmacogenetics studies in order to show association between caprine, ovine and bovine DQA2 allelic variation and the clinical progression of infectious diseases especially in a developing country such as Nigeria.

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B. Ugbo, S. , Yakubu, A. , Omeje, J. , S. Bibinu, B. , S. Musa, I. , O. Egahi, J. and Dim, N. (2015) Assessment of Genetic Relationship and Application of Computational Algorithm to Assess Functionality of Non-Synonymous Substitutions in DQA2 Gene of Cattle, Sheep and Goats. Open Journal of Genetics, 5, 145-158. doi: 10.4236/ojgen.2015.54011.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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