Share This Article:

Decoupling the Electrical and Entropic Contributions to Energy Transfer from Infrared Radiation to a Power Generator

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1763KB) PP. 301-318
DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.54031    4,146 Downloads   4,600 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The interaction between infrared radiation and a power generator device in time is studied as a route to harvest infrared, and possibly other electromagnetic radiations. Broadening the spectrum of the usable electromagnetic spectrum would greatly contribute to the renewable and sustainable energy sources available to humankind. In particular, low frequency and low power radiation is important for applications on ships, satellites, cars, personal backpacks, and, more generally, where non-dangerous energy is needed at all hours of the day, independent of weather conditions. In this work, we identify an electric and an entropic contribution to the energy transfer from low power infrared radiation to the power generator device, representing electrical and thermal contributions to the power generation. The electric contribution prevails, and is important because it offers multiple ways to increase the voltage produced. For example, placing black-colored gaffer tape on the illuminated face doubles the voltage produced, while the temperature difference, thus the entropic contribution, is not sensitive to the presence of the tape. We recognize the electric contribution through the fast changes it imparts to the voltage output of the power generator device, which mirror the instabilities in time of the infrared radiation. The device thus acts as sensor of the infrared radiation’s behavior in time. On the other hand, we distinguish the entropic contribution through the slow changes it causes to the voltage output of the power generator device, which reflect the relative delay with which the two faces of the device respond to thermal perturbations.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Gordon, A. , Schwab, Y. , Lang, B. , Gearhart, G. , Jobin, T. , Kaczmar, J. , Marinelli, Z. , Mann, H. , Utter, B. and Scarel, G. (2015) Decoupling the Electrical and Entropic Contributions to Energy Transfer from Infrared Radiation to a Power Generator. World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, 5, 301-318. doi: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.54031.

References

[1] Christillin, P. (1986) Nuclear Compton Scattering. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 12, 837-851.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0305-4616/12/9/008
[2] Siegbahn, K.M. (1981) Electron Spectroscopy for Atoms, Molecules and Condensed Matter. Nobel Lecture, 8 December.
[3] Einstein, A. (1905) Concerning an Heuristic Point of View toward the Emission and Transformation of Light. Annalen der Physik, 17, 132-148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/andp.19053220607
[4] Becquerel, E. (1839) Mémoire sur les effets électriques produits sous l’influence des rayons solaires. Comptes Rendus, 9, 561-567.
[5] Burdick, G.A. (1963) Energy Band Structure of Copper. Physical Review, 129, 138-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.129.138
[6] Newnham, R.E., Jang, S.J., Xu, M. and Jones, F. (1991) Fundamental Interaction Mechanisms between Microwaves and Matter. Ceramic Transactions, 21, 51-67.
[7] Kliewer, K.L. and Fuchs, R. (1966) Optical Modes of Vibration in an Ionic Crystal Slab including Retardation. I. Nonradiative Region. Physical Review, 144, 495-503.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.144.495
[8] Kliewer, K.L. and Fuchs, R. (1966) Optical Modes of Vibration in an Ionic Crystal Slab including Retardation. II. Radiative Region. Physical Review, 150, 573-588.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.150.573
[9] Fuchs, R., Kliewer, K.L. and Pardee, W.J. (1966) Optical Properties of an Ionic Crystal Slab. Physical Review, 150, 589-596.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.150.589
[10] Berreman, D.W. (1963) Infrared Absorption at Longitudinal Optic Frequency in Cubic Crystal Films. Physical Review, 130, 2193-2198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.130.2193
[11] Gest, H. (2002) History of the Word Photo Synthesis and Evolution of Its Definition. Photosynthesis Research, 73, 7-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1020419417954
[12] Kuesco, G., Mauer, P.C., Yao, N.Y., Kubo, M., Noh, H.J., Lo, P.K., Park, H. and Lukin, M.D. (2013) Nanometre-Scale Thermometry in a Living Cell. Nature, 500, 54-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12373
[13] Jameson, A.D., Tomaino, J.L., Lee, J.-S., Khitrova, G., Gibbs, H.M., Böttge, C.N., Klettke, A.C., Kira, M. and Koch, S.W. (2014) Direct Measurement of Light-Matter Energy Exchange inside a Microcavity. Optica, 1, 276-280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPTICA.1.000276
[14] Kumar, A., Low, T., Fung, K.H., Avouris, P. and Fang, N.X. (2015) Tunable Light-Matter Interaction and the Role of Hyperbolicity in Graphene-hBN System. Nano Letters, 15, 3172-3180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01191
[15] Richter, C.-P., Rajguru, S., Stafford, R. and Stock, S.R. (2013) Radiant Energy during Infrared Neural Stimulation at the Target Structure. Proceedings of SPIE, 8565, Article ID: 85655P.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2013849
[16] Eisen, D., Janssen, D., Chen, X., Choa, F.-S., Kotsov, D. and Fan, J. (2013) Closing a Venus Flytrap with Electrical and Mid-IR Photon Stimulations. Proceedings of SPIE, 8565, Article ID: 85655I.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2005351
[17] Tritt, T.M., Böttner, H. and Chen, L. (2008) Thermoelectrics: Direct Solar Thermal Energy Conversion. MRS Bulletin, 33, 366-368.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/mrs2008.73
[18] Tritt, T.M. (2011) Thermoelectric Phenomena, Materials, and Applications. Annual Review of Materials Research, 41, 433-438.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-matsci-062910-100453
[19] Bell, L.E. (2008) Cooling, Heating, Generating Power, and Recovering Waste Heat with Thermoelectric Systems. Science, 321, 1457-1461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1158899
[20] Vining, C.B. (2009) An Inconvenient Truth about Thermoelectrics. Nature Materials, 8, 83-85.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmat2361
[21] Schwab, Y., Mann, H.S., Lang, B.N., Lancaster, J.L., Parise, R.J., Vincent-Johnson, A.J. and Scarel, G. (2013) Infrared Power Generation in an Insulated Compartment. Complexity, 19, 44-55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cplx.21484
[22] Strogatz, S.H. (1994) Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos. Westview Press, Cambridge, MA.
[23] Jones, R.C. (1941) A New Calculus for the Treatment of Optical Systems. I. Description and Discussion of the Calculus. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 31, 488-493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.31.000488
[24] Jones, R.C. (1941) A New Calculus for the Treatment of Optical Systems. III. The Sohncke Theory of Optical Activity. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 31, 500-503.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.31.000500
[25] Jones, R.C. (1942) A New Calculus for the Treatment of Optical Systems. IV. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 32, 486-493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSA.32.000486
[26] Korteweg, D.J. and de Vries, G. (1895) On the Change of Form of Long Waves Advancing in a Rectangular Canal and a New Type of Long Stationary Waves. Philosophical Magazine Series, 39, 422-443.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786449508620739
[27] Smaoui, N. and Zribi, M. (2009) A Finite Dimensional Control of the Dynamics of the Generalized Korteweg-de Vries Burgers Equation. Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences, 3, 207-221.
[28] Jiang, Y., Tian, B., Liu, W.-J., Sun, K. and Qu, Q.-X. (2010) Soliton Solutions for a Variable-Coefficient Korteweg-de Vries Equation in Fluids and Plasmas. Physica Scripta, 82, Article ID: 055008.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-8949/82/05/055008
[29] Vlieg-Hulstman, M. and Halford, W.D. (1995) Exact Solutions to KdV Equations with Variable Coefficients and/or Nonuniformities. Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 29, 39-47.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0898-1221(94)00205-Y
[30] Mann, H.S., Schwab, Y., Lang, B.N., Lancaster, J.L., Parise, R.J. and Scarel, G. (2014) Effective Thermoelectric Power Generation in an Insulated Compartment. World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, 4, 153-165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/wjcmp.2014.43020

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.