: 100%;" id="htmlContent">

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Halliwell, B., Hu, M.L., Louie, S., Duvall, T.R., Tarkington, B.K., Motchnik, P. and Cross, C.E. (1992) Interaction of Nitrogen Dioxide with Human Plasma. Antioxidant Depletion and Oxidative Damage. FEBS Letters, 313, 62-66.
[2] Winkler, B.S., Boulton, M.E., Gottsch, J.D. and Sternberg, P. (1999) Oxidative Damage and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Molecular Vision, 5, 32-59.
[3] Jarrett, S.G. and Boulton, M.E. (2012) Consequences of Oxidative Stress in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 33, 399-417.
[4] Tokarz, P., Kaarniranta, K. and Blasiak, J. (2013) Role of Antioxidant Enzymes and Small Molecular Weight Antioxidants in the Pathogenes Is of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Biogerontology, 14, 461-482.
[5] Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group (2001) A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of High- Dose Supplementation with Vitamins C and E, Beta Carotene, and Zinc for Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Vision Loss: AREDS Report No. 8. Archives of Ophthalmology, 119, 1417-1436.
[6] Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group, SanGio-vanni, J.P., Chew, E.Y., Clemons, T.E., Ferris 3rd, F.L., Gensler, G., Lindblad, A.S., Milton, R.C., Seddon, J.M. and Sperduto, R.D. (2007) The Relationship of Dietary Carotenoid and Vitamin A, E, and C Intake with Age-Related Mac-ular Degeneration in a Case-Control Study: AREDS Report No. 22. Archives of Ophthalmology, 125, 1225-1232.
[7] Amann, P.M., Eichmuller, S.B., Schmidt, J. and Bazhin, A.V. (2011) Regulation of Gene Expression by Retin-oids. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 18, 1405-1412.
[8] Dawson, M.I. and Xia, Z. (2012) The Retinoid X Receptors and Their Ligands. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1821, 21-56.
[9] Salbert, G., Fanjul, A., Piedrafita, F.J., Lu, X.P., Kim, S.J., Tran, P. and Pfahl, M. (1993) Retinoic Acid Receptors and Retinoid X Receptor-Alpha Down-Regulate the Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 Promoter by Antagonizing AP-1 Activity. Molecular Endocrinology, 7, 1347-1356.
[10] Pfahl, M. and Piedrafita, F.J. (2003) Retinoid Targets for Apoptosis Induction. Oncogene, 22, 9058-9062.
[11] Abate, C., Patel, L., Rauscher 3rd, F.J. and Curran, T. (1990) Redox Regulation of Fos and Jun DNA-Binding Activity in Vitro. Science, 249, 1157-1161.
[12] Benkoussa, M., Brand, C., Delmotte, M.H., Formstecher, P. and Lefebvre, P. (2002) Retinoic Acid Receptors Inhibit AP1 Activation by Regulating Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase and CBP Recruitment to an AP1-Responsive Promoter. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 22, 4522-4534.
[13] Froeschle, A., Carnac, G., Alric, S., Montarras, D., Pinset, C., Rochette-Egly, C. and Bonnieu, A. (1996) RXR Alpha Is Essential for Mediating the All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Growth Arrest of C2 Myogenic Cells. Oncogene, 12, 411-421.
[14] Ding, Y., Qiao, A., Wang, Z., Goodwin, J.S., Lee, E.S., Block, M.L., Allsbrook, M., McDonald, M.P. and Fan, G.H. (2008) Retinoic Acid Attenuates Beta-Amyloid Deposition and Rescues Memory Deficits in an Alzheimer’s Disease Transgenic Mouse Model. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 11622-11634.
[15] Maden, M. (2007) Retinoic Acid in the Development, Regeneration and Maintenance of the Nervous System. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8, 755-765.
[16] Malaspina, A. and Michael-Titus, A.T. (2008) Is the Modulation of Ret-inoid and Retinoid-Associated Signaling a Future Therapeutic Strategy in Neurological Trauma and Neurodegeneration? Journal of Neurochemistry, 104, 584-595.
[17] Chang, H.J., Park, J.S., Lee, E.K., Kim, M.H., Baek, M.K., Kim, H.R., Jeong, H.G., Choi, S.Y. and Jung, Y.D. (2009) Ascorbic Acid Suppresses the 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloridibenxo-p-Dioxin (TCDD)-Induced CYP1A1 Expression in Human HepG2 Cells. Toxicology in Vitro, 23, 622-626.
[18] Duarte, T.L. and Lunec, J. (2005) Review: When Is an Antioxidant Not an Antioxidant? A Review of Novel Actions and Reactions of Vitamin C. Free Radical Research, 39, 671-686.
[19] May, J.M. (1999) Is Ascorbic Acid an Antioxidant for the Plasma Membrane? The FASEB Journal, 13, 995-1006.
[20] Lane, D.J. and Lawen, A. (2009) Ascorbate and Plasma Membrane Electron Transport—Enzymes vs Efflux. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 47, 485-495.
[21] Thompson, D.A. and Gal, A. (2003) Vitamin A Metabolism in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium: Genes, Mutations, and Diseases. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 22, 683-703.
[22] Azzi, A. (2004) The Role of Al-pha-Tocopherol in Preventing Disease. European Journal of Nutrition, 43, I/18-25.
[23] Azzi, A., Ricciarelli, R. and Zingg, J.M. (2002) Non-Antioxidant Molecular Functions of Alpha-Tocopherol (Vitamin E). FEBS Letters, 519, 8-10.
[24] Burton, G.W. and Ingold, K.U. (1989) Vitamin E as an in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 570, 7-22.
[25] Traber, M.G. (2007) Vitamin E Regulatory Mecha-nisms. Annual Review of Nutrition, 27, 347-362.
[26] Yamauchi, J., Iwamoto, T., Kida, S., Masushige, S., Yamada, K. and Esashi, T. (2001) Tocopherol-Associated Protein Is a Ligand-Dependent Transcriptional Activator. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 285, 295-299.
[27] Darwiche, N., Bazzi, H., El-Touni, L., Abou-Lteif, G., Doueiri, R., Hatoum, A., Maalouf, S. and Gali-Muhtasib, H. (2005) Regulation of Ultraviolet B Radiation-Mediated Activation of AP1 Signaling by Retinoids in Primary Keratinocytes. Radiation Research, 163, 296-306.
[28] Kagan, D.B., Liu, H. and Hutnik, C.M. (2012) Efficacy of Various Anti-oxidants in the Protection of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium from Oxidative Stress. Clinical Ophthalmology, 6, 1471-1476.
[29] Rozanowska, M., Bakker, L., Boulton, M.E. and Rozanowski, B. (2012) Concentration Dependence of Vitamin C in Combinations with Vitamin E and Zeaxanthin on Light-Induced Toxicity to Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 88, 1408-1417.
[30] Loke, W.M., Proudfoot, J.M., McKinley, A.J. and Croft, K.D. (2006) Augmentation of Monocyte Intracellular Ascorbate in Vitro Protects Cells from Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Responses. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 345, 1039-1043.
[31] Chen, J.Y., Penco, S., Ostrowski, J., Balaguer, P., Pons, M Starrett, J.E., Reczek, P., Chambon, P. and Gronemeyer, H. (2006) RAR-Specific Agonist/Antagonists Which Dissociate Transactivation and AP1 Transrepression Inhibit Anchorage-Independent Cell Proliferation. The EMBO Journal, 14, 1187-1197.
[32] Dedieu, S. and Lefebvre, P. (2006) Retinoids Interfere with the AP1 Signalling Pathway in Human Breast Cancer Cells. Cellular Signalling, 18, 889-898.
[33] Amstad, P.A., Krupitza, G. and Cerutti, P.A. (1992) Mecha-nism of c-Fos induction by Active Oxygen. Cancer Research, 52, 3952-3960.
[34] Devary, Y., Gottlieb, R.A., Lau, L.F. and Karin, M. (1991) Rapid and Preferential Activation of the c-Jun Gene during the Mammalian UV Response. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 11, 2804-2811.
[35] Geller, S.F. and Stone, J. (2003) Quantitative PCR Analysis of FosB mRNA Expression after Short Duration Oxygen and Light Stress. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 533, 249-257.
[36] Karin, M. (1995) The Regulation of AP-1 Activity by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270, 16483-16486.
[37] Morris, B.J. (1995) Stimulation of Immediate Early Gene Ex-pression in Striatal Neurons by Nitric Oxide. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270, 24740-24744.
[38] Cavigelli, M., Li, W.W., Lin, A., Su, B., Yoshioka, K. and Karin, M. (1996) The Tumor Promoter Arsenite Stimulates AP-1 Activity by Inhibiting a JNK Phosphatase. The EMBO Journal, 15, 6269-6279.
[39] Karin, M. and Shaulian, E. (2001) AP-1: Linking Hydrogen Peroxide and Oxidative Stress to the Control of Cell Proliferation and Death. IUBMB Life, 52, 17-24.
[40] Lallemand, D., Spyrou, G., Yaniv, M. and Pfarr, C.M. (1997) Variations in Jun and Fos Protein Expression and AP-1 Activity in Cycling, Resting and Stimulated Fibroblasts. Oncogene, 14, 819-830.
[41] Morgan, J.I. and Curran, T. (1991) Stimulus-Transcription Coupling in the Nervous System: Involvement of the Inducible Proto-Oncogenes Fos and Jun. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 14, 421-451.
[42] Xanthoudakis, S. and Curran, T. (1992) Identification and Characterization of Ref-1, a Nuclear Protein That Facilitates AP-1 DNA-Binding Activity. The EMBO Journal, 11, 653-665.
[43] Zhou, L.Z., Johnson, A.P. and Rando, T.A. (2001) NF Kappa B and AP-1 Mediate Transcriptional Responses to Oxidative Stress in Skeletal Muscle Cells. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 31, 1405-1416.
[44] Shaulian, E. and Karin, M. (2002) AP-1 as a Regulator of Cell Life and Death. Nature Cell Biology, 4, E131-E136.
[45] Shaulian, E. and Karin, M. (2001) AP-1 in Cell Proliferation and Survival. Oncogene, 20, 2390-2400.
[46] Chaum, E., Yin, J., Yang, H., Thomas, F. and Lang, J.C. (2009) Quantitative AP-1 Gene Regulation by Oxidative Stress in the Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 108, 1280-1291.
[47] Yin, J., Thomas, F., Lang, J.C. and Chaum, E. (2011) Modulation of Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Following Treatment with Vitamin C. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 226, 2025-2032.
[48] Yang, H., Yang, X., Lang, J.C. and Chaum, E. (2006) Tissue Culture Methods Can Strongly Induce Immediate Early Gene Expression in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 98, 1560-1569.
[49] Gao, S., Qin, T., Liu, Z., Caceres, M.A., Ronchi, C.F., Chen, C.Y., Yeum, K.J., Taylor, A., Blumberg, J.B., Liu, Y. and Shang, F. (2011) Lutein and Zeaxanthin Supplementation Reduces H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage in Human Lens Epithelial Cells. Molecular Vision, 17, 3180-3190.
[50] Hothorn, T., Bretz, F. and Westfall, P. (2008) Simultaneous Inference in General Parametric Models. Biometrical Journal, 50, 346-363.
[51] Van Belle, G., Fisher, L.D., Heagerty, P.J. and Lumley, T. (2004) Biostatistics: A Methodology for the Health Sciences. Wiley, Hoboken.
[52] Kunter, M., Nachtsheim, C., Neter, J. and Li, W. (2005) Applied Linear Statistical Models. McGraw-Hill/Irvin, Boston.
[53] Montgomery, D.C. (2001) Design and Analysis of Experiments. Wiley, Hoboken.
[54] Chew, E.Y., Clemons, T.E., Agron, E., Sperduto, R.D., Sangiovanni, J.P., Kurinij, N. and Davis, M.D., Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group (2013) Long-Term Effects of Vitamins C and E, Beta-Carotene, and Zinc on Age-Related Macular Degeneration: AREDS Report No. 35. Ophthalmology, 120, 1604.e4-1611.e4.
[55] Kagan, V.E., Serbinova, E.A., Forte, T., Scita, G. and Packer, L. (1992) Recycling of Vitamin E in Human Low Density Lipoproteins. The Journal of Lipid Research, 33, 385-397.
[56] Niki, E. (1987) Interaction of Ascorbate and Alpha-Tocopherol. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 498, 186-199.
[57] Niki, E., Saito, T., Kawakami, A. and Kamiya, Y. (1984) Inhibition of Oxidation of Methyl Linoleate in Solution by Vitamin E and Vitamin C. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 259, 4177-4182.
[58] Ford, E.S., Schleicher, R.L., Mokdad, A.H., Ajani, U.A. and Liu, S. (2006) Distribution of Serum Concentrations of α-Tocopherol and γ-Tocopherol in the US Population. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 375-383.
[59] Hosomi, A., Goto, K., Kondo, H., Iwatsubo, T., Yokota, T., Ogawa, M., Arita, M., Aoki, J., Arai, H. and Inoue K. (1998) Localization of Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein in Rat Brain. Neuroscience Letters, 256, 159-162.
[60] Morley, S., Cecchini, M., Zhang, W., Virgulti, A., Noy, N., Atkinson, J. and Manor, D. (2008) Mechanisms of Ligand Transfer by the Hepatic Tocopherol Transfer Protein. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283, 17797-17804.
[61] Shichiri, M., Takanezawa, Y., Rotzoll, D.E., Yoshida, Y., Kokubu, T., Ueda, K., Tamai, H. and Arai, H. (2010) ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Is Involved in Hepatic Alpha-Tocopherol Secretion. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 21, 451-456.
[62] Thakur, V., Morley, S. and Manor, D. (2010) Hepatic Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein: Ligand-Induced Protection from Proteasomal Degradation. Biochemistry, 49, 9339-9344.
[63] Ouahchi, K., Arita, M., Kayden, H., Hentati, F., Ben Hamida, M., Sokol, R., Arai, H., Inoue, K., Mandel, J.L. and Koenig, M. (1995) Ataxia with Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency Is Caused by Mutations in the Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein. Nature Genetics, 9, 141-145.
[64] Yokota, T., Igarashi, K., Uchihara, T., Jishage, K., Tomita, H., Inaba, A., Li, Y., Arita, M., Suzuki, H., Mizusawa, H. and Aria, H. (2001) Delayed-Onset Ataxia in Mice Lacking Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein: Model for Neuronal Degeneration Caused by Chronic Oxidative Stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 15185-15190.
[65] Yokota, T., Shiojiri, T., Gotoda, T. and Arai, H. (1996) Retinitis Pigmentosa and Ataxia Caused by a Mutation in the Gene for the Alpha-Tocopherol-Transfer Protein. The New England Journal of Medicine, 335, 1770-1771.
[66] Yokota, T., Uchihara, T., Kumagai, J., Shiojiri, T., Pang, J.J., Arita, M., Arai, H., Hayashi, M., Kiyosawa, M., Okeda, R. and Mizusawa, H. (2000) Postmortem Study of Ataxia with Retinitis Pigmentosa by Mutation of the Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Gene. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 68, 521-525.
[67] Tanito, M., Yoshida, Y., Kaidzu, S., Chen, Z.H., Cynshi, O., Jishage, K., Niki, E. and Ohira, A. (2007) Acceleration of Age-Related Changes in the Retina in Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Null Mice Fed a Vitamin E-Deficient Diet. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 48, 396-404.
[68] Robison Jr., W.G., Kuwabara, T. and Bieri, J.G. (1979) Vitamin E Deficiency and the Retina: Photoreceptor and Pigment Epithelial Changes. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 18, 683-690.
[69] Robison Jr., W.G., Kuwabara, T. and Bieri, J.G. (1980) Deficiencies of Vitamins E and A in the Rat. Retinal Damage and Lipofuscin Accumulation. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 19, 1030-1037.
[70] Etzl, R.P., Vrekoussis, T., Kuhn, C., Schulze, S., Poschl, J.M., Makrigiannakis, A., Jeschke, U. and Rotzoll, D.E. (2012) Oxidative Stress Stimulates Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein in Human Trophoblast Tumor Cells BeWo. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 40, 373-378.
[71] Ulatowski, L., Dreussi, C., Noy, N., Barnholtz-Sloan, J., Klein, E. and Manor, D. (2012) Expression of the Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Gene Is Regulated by Oxidative Stress and Common Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 53, 2318-2326.
[72] Titchenell, P.M., Lin, C.M., Keil, J.M., Sundstrom, J.M., Smith, C.D. and Antonetti, D.A. (2012) Novel Atypical PKC Inhibitors Prevent Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Blood-Retinal Barrier Dysfunction. Biochemical Journal, 446, 455-467.
[73] Azzi, A., Breyer, I., Feher, M., Ricciarelli, R., Stocker, A., Zimmer, S. and Zingg, J. (2001) Nonantioxidant Functions of Alpha-Tocopherol in Smooth Muscle Cells. Journal of Nutrition, 131, 378S-381S.
[74] Ricciarelli, R., Tasinato, A., Clement, S., Ozer, N.K., Boscoboinik, D. and Azzi, A. (1998) Alpha-Tocopherol Specifically Inactivates Cellular Protein Kinase C Alpha by Changing Its Phosphorylation State. Biochemical Journal, 334, 243-249.
[75] Azzi, A., Boscoboinik, D., Clement, S., Ozer, N., Ricciarelli, R. and Stocker, A. (1999) Vitamin E Mediated Response of Smooth Muscle Cell to Oxidant Stress. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 45, 191-198.
[76] Feng, Z., Liu, Z., Li, X., Jia, H., Sun, L., Tian, C., Jia, L. and Liu, J. (2010) Alpha-Tocopherol Is an Effective Phase II Enzyme Inducer: Protective Effects on Acrolein-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 21, 1222-1231.
[77] Niture, S.K., Khatri, R. and Jaiswal, A.K. (2013) Regulation of Nrf2—An Update. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 66, 36-44.
[78] Maziere, C., Conte, M.A., Degonville, J., Ali, D. and Maziere, J.C. (1999) Cellular Enrichment with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Induces an Oxidative Stress And activates the Transcription Factors AP1 and NFkappaB. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 265, 116-122.
[79] Catani, M.V., Rossi, A., Costanzo, A., Sabatini, S., Levrero, M., Melino, G. and Avigliano, L. (2001) Induction of Gene Expression via Activator Protein-1 in the Ascorbate Protection against UV-Induced Damage. Biochemical Journal, 356, 77-85.
[80] Hoshikawa, Y., Kanki, K., Ashla, A.A., Arakaki, Y., Azumi, J., Yasui, T., Tezuka, Y., Matsumi, Y., Tsuchiya, H., Kurimasa, A., Hisatome, I., Hirano, T., Fujimoto, J., Kagechika, H., Shomori, K., Ito, H. and Shiota, G. (2011) c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activation by Oxidative Stress Suppresses Retinoid Signaling through Proteasomal Degradation of Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Protein in Hepatic Cells. Cancer Science, 102, 934-941.
[81] Mehta, K. (2003) Retinoids as Regulators of Gene Transcription. Journal of Biological Regulators & Homeostatic Agents, 17, 1-12.
[82] Rohrdanz, E. and Kahl, R. (1998) Alterations of Antioxidant Enzyme Expression in Response to Hydrogen Peroxide. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 24, 27-38.
[83] Tate Jr., D.J., Miceli, M.V. and Newsome, D.A. (1995) Phagocytosis and H2O2 Induce Catalase and Metallothionein Gene Expression in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 36, 1271- 1279.
[84] Palczewski, K. (2010) Retinoids for Treatment of Retinal Diseases. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 31, 284-295.
[85] Sharoni, Y., Danilenko, M., Dubi, N., Ben-Dor, A. and Levy, J. (2004) Carotenoids and Transcription. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 430, 89-96.
[86] DiSepio, D., Sutter, M., Johnson, A.T., Chandraratna, R.A. and Nagpal, S. (1999) Identification of the AP1-Antagon- ism Domain of Retinoic Acid Receptors. Molecular Cell Biology Research Communications, 1, 7-13.
[87] Schule, R., Rangarajan, P., Yang, N., Kliewer, S., Ransone, L.J., Bolado, J., Verma, I.M. and Evans, R.M. (1991) Retinoic Acid Is a Negative Regulator of AP-1-Responsive Genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 88, 6092-6096.
[88] Zhou, X.F., Shen, X.Q. and Shemshedini, L. (1999) Ligand-Activated Retinoic Acid Receptor Inhibits AP-1 Transactivation by Disrupting c-Jun/c-Fos Dimerization. Molecular Endocrinology, 13, 276-285.
[89] Du, Y.H., Hirooka, K., Miyamoto, O., Bao, Y.Q., Zhang, B, An, J.B. and Ma, J.X. (2013) Retinoic Acid Suppresses the Adhesion and Migration of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Experimental Eye Research, 109, 22-30.
[90] Dutta, A., Sen, T. and Chatterjee, A. (2010) All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA) Downregulates MMP-9 by Modulating Its Regulatory Molecules. Cell Adhesion & Migration, 4, 409-418.
[91] Diaz, B.V., Lenoir, M.C., Ladoux, A., Frelin, C., Demarchez, M. and Michel, S. (2000) Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Human Keratinocytes by Retinoids. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275, 642-650.
[92] Perusek, L. and Maeda, T. (2013) Vitamin A Derivatives as Treatment Options for Retinal Degenerative Diseases. Nutrients, 5, 2646-2666.
[93] Harrison, E.H. (2012) Mechanisms Involved in the Intestinal Absorption of Dietary Vitamin A and Provitamin A Carotenoids. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1821, 70-77.
[94] von Lintig, J. (2012) Provitamin A Metabolism and Functions in Mammalian Biology. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96, 1234S-1244S.

comments powered by Disqus
NS Subscription
E-Mail Alert
NS Most popular papers
Publication Ethics & OA Statement
NS News
Frequently Asked Questions
Recommend to Peers
Recommend to Library
Contact Us

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.