Share This Article:

Globalization: Revisiting Neglected Tropical Diseases Such as Malaria and Measles

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:341KB) PP. 45-56
DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.311007    3,579 Downloads   4,063 Views   Citations


This study examines the roles globalization plays in the spread of neglected tropical diseases like malaria and measles from region to region. Based on the analyzed data in 7 global regions, the study found that measles dropped from 1755 measles cases in all measured regions to 19 measles cases, 92.3 times, or 923% between 2000 and 2005. Conversely, the study found an unexplainable symmetrical increase between 2010 and 2014 from the original 19 measles cases to 1540 cases, 81.05 times, or approximately 811% regionally worldwide. The study also found that neglecting tropical diseases by presumed and assumed safer regions’ leaders as defensive mechanisms, were ineffective, inefficient, and in proficient; because malaria and measles continue to spread from region to region worldwide; regardless of efforts. The implication of this study is to assist international public health officials, public policy officials, and global leaderships to rethink, refocus, and revisit their treatments modalities, spread prevention methodologies, and practical approaches in addressing tropical neglected diseases such as malaria and particularly measles, which could eventually bring some positive social changes regionally; worldwide.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Atatah, P. and Kisavi-Atatah, C. (2015) Globalization: Revisiting Neglected Tropical Diseases Such as Malaria and Measles. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 45-56. doi: 10.4236/jss.2015.311007.


[1] Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2005) Malaria Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).
[2] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2011) “Complications of Measles”.
[3] Romi, R., et al. (2010) Incidence of Malaria and Risk Factors in Italian Travelers to Malaria Endemic Countries. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 8, 144-154.
[4] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012) Malaria.
[5] Ungger, H.W., et al. (2011) Imported Malaria in Scotland—An Overview of Surveillance, Reporting and Trends. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 9, 289-297.
[6] World Health Organization (WHO) (2013) Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response.
[7] Caserta, M.T., Ed. (September 2013) “Measles”. Merck Manual Professional. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
[8] Maurice, R. and Hilleman, D. (2005) Dies; Created Vaccines. The Washington Post. April 13, 2005.
[9] Rima, B.K., Earle, J.A., Yeo, R.P., Herlihy, L., Baczko, K., TerMeulen, V., Carabana, J., Caballero, M., Celma, M.L. and Fernandez-Munoz, R. (1995) Temporal and Geographical Distribution of Measles Virus Genotypes. The Journal of General Virology, 76, 1173-1180.
[10] Byrne, J.P. (2008) Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M. ABC-CLIO. p. 413.
[11] Torrey, E.F. and Yolken, R.H. (2005) Their Bugs Are Worse than Their Bite. Washington Post, April 3, B01.
[12] WHO (2006) Global Summary on Measles, 2006.
[13] WHO (2014) Measles Surveillance Data after WHO, Last Updated 2014-3-6.
[14] WHO (2014) Measles Reported Cases by WHO in 2014.
[15] Fisher, D.L., Defres, S. and Solomon, T. (2014) Measles-Induced Encephalitis. QJM, 108, 177-182.
[16] Lozano, R., Naghavi, M., Foreman, K., Lim, S., Shibuya, K., Aboyans, V., Abraham, J., Adair, T., Aggarwal, R., Ahn, S.Y., et al. (2012) Global and Regional Mortality from 235 Causes of Death for 20 Age Groups in 1990 and 2010: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet, 380, 2095-2128.
[17] Black, F.L. (1966) Measles Endemicity in Insular Populations; Critical Community Size and Its Evolutionary Implications. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 11, 207-211.
[18] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2014) Measles Prevention: Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP).
[19] WHO (2012) World Health Organization Measles Fact Sheet No. 286. Updated February 2014.
[20] United Nations (UN) (2013) Millennium Development Goals Reports. United Nations, New York.
[21] World Health Organization WHO (2014) Measles, World Health Organization Fact Sheet No. 286. Updated February 2014.
[22] Offit, P.A. (2007) Vaccinated: One Man’s Quest to Defeat the World’s Deadliest Diseases. Smithsonian, Washington DC.
[23] WHO (2014) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Fact Sheet No. 290. WHO.
[24] Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2011) Malaria Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).
[25] BBC News (2006) Measles Hits Rare Andaman Tribe. BBC News. 16 May 2006. Live Attenuated Measles Vaccine. EPI Newsletter/C Expanded Program on Immunization in the Americas, 2, 6.
[26] Creswell, J.W. (2009) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approach. 3rd Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks.
[27] Miller, R.G. (1981) Simultaneous Statistical Inference. 2nd Edition, Springer-Verlag, New York.
[28] Morrow, J. (2011) The T-Tests for Independent Variables/Introduction to Hypothesis, Baltimore. Walden Study Resources, Week 7, RCSH-8200P-2. Laureate Education, Inc. (2011 Executive Producer), (Walden, [DVD]).
[29] Frankfort-Nachmias, C. and Nachmias, D. (2000) Research Methods in the Social Sciences. 6th Edition, Wadsworth, New York.
[30] Atatah, P., Rutledge, P., Thomas, D. and Settles, T. (2013) Analysis of Variance in Recidivism between Special Needs Offenders and Regular Offender Populations in Texas. Statistical Significant Differences Multiplier. (SSDM). Published Dissertation, Walden University, Minneapolis.
[31] Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2008) Malaria Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).
[32] Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2010) Malaria Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).
[33] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2014) Complications of Measles. CDC, DeKalb County.
[34] Berger, P.L. and Luckmann, T. (1966) The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Doubleday & Company, New York.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.