Determination of Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency in Crop Production

DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.69101   PDF   HTML   XML   2,942 Downloads   3,867 Views   Citations


The main concern in cultivating crops has always been water availability. To increase food production, water plays a major role after securing a large portion of land area. Knowledge of the factors influencing crop water use efficiency and hope to increase the efficiency has continued to be an objective in many modern studies. The gap between irrigation supply and demand is increasing from year to year as a result of an increase in population growing rate and people moving from place to place. Searching for new water may be a too difficult and very expensive process, so the shortest and easiest way is to maximize the water use efficiency throughout optimizing water use efficiency and the first step on that is determination of the actual crop water requirements.

Share and Cite:

Rauff, K. and A. Shittu, S. (2015) Determination of Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency in Crop Production. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 1058-1067. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.69101.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Thornthwaite, C.W. (1948) An Approach toward a Rational Classification of Climate. Geographical Review, 38, 55-94.
[2] Tucci, C.E.M. and Beltrame, L.F.S. (2009) Evaporação e evapotranspiração, In: Tucci, C.E.M., Ed., Hidrologia: Ciência e Aplicação, UFRGS Editora, Porto Alegre, 253-287.
[3] Allen, G.R., Pereira, S.L., Raes, D. and Smith, M. (1998) Crop Evapotranspiration: Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements. Food and Agrocultural Organization of the United Nations, FAO-56, Rome, 300 p.
[4] Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Howell, T.A. and Jensen, M.E. (2011) Evapotranspiration Information Reporting: I. Factors Governing Measurement Accuracy. Agricultural Water Management, 98, 899-920.
[5] Wright, J.L. and Lemon, E.R. (1967) Micrometeorological Methods as Tools for Increasing Crop Production and Water-Use Efficiency. Proceedings of 8th Annual Fertilizer Conference of the Pacific Northwest, Twin Falls, 11-13 July 1967.
[6] Munn, R.E. and Davidson, B. (1957) Exploring the Atmosphere’s. Pergamon Press, New York, 376 p.
[7] Bezerra, J.R.C., de Azevedo, P.V., da Silva, B.B. and Dias, J.M. (2010) Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultivo do algodoeiro BRS-200 Marrom, Irrigado. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, 14, 625-632.
[8] Gavilán, P. and Berengena, J. (2007) Accuracy of the Bowen Ratio-Energy Balance Method for Measuring Latent Heat Flux in a Semiarid Advective Environment. Irrigation Science, 25, 127-140.
[9] Hou, L.G., Xiao, H.L., Si, J.H., Zhou, M.X. and Yang, Y.G. (2010) Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficient of Populus euphratica Olivi Forest during the Growin Season in the Extreme arid Region Northwest China. Agricultural Water Management, 97, 351-356.
[10] Steduto, P. and Hsiao, T.C. (1998) Maize Canopies under Two Soil Water Regimes: IV. Validity of Bowen Ratio-Energy Balance Technique for Measuring Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes at 5-min Intervals. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 89, 215-228.
[11] Todd, R.W., Evett, S.R. and Howell, T.A. (2000) The Bowen Ratio-Energy Balance Method for Estimating Latent Heat Flux of Irrigated Alfalfa Evaluated in a Semi-Arid, Advective Environment. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 103, 335-348.
[12] Sergeant, D.H. and Tanner, C.B. (1967) A Simple Psychrometric Apparatus for Bowen Ration Determinations. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 6, 414-418.
[13] Tanner, C.B. (1960) Energy Balance Approach to Evapotranspiration from Crops. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 24, 1-9.
[14] Liu, H. and Foken, T. (2001) A Modified Bowen Ratio Method to Determine Sensible and Latent Heat Fluxes. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 10, 71-80.
[15] Geiger, Z.R. (1959) The Climate near the Ground. 2nd Edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 482 p.
[16] Slatyer, R.O. and Mcllroy, I.C. (1961) Practical Microclimatology. UNESCO, Prepared and Reproduced by CSIRO, Australia.
[17] Waggoner, P.E., Ed. (1965) Agricultural Meteorology. American Meteorological Society, Boston, 188 p.
[18] Evans, L.T. (1962) Environmental Control of Plant Growth. Academic Press, New York, 449 p.
[19] Foken, T. (2008) Micrometeorology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 306 p.
[20] Lehmann, A. and Kalb, M. (1993) 100 Jahre meteorologische Beobachtungen an der S?kularstation Potsdam 1893-1992. Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, 32 p.
[21] Stull, R.B. (1988) An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston and London, 666 p.
[22] Liebethal, C. and Foken, T. (2007) Evaluation of Six Parameterization Approaches for the Ground Heat Flux. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 88, 43-56.
[23] Arya, S.P. (2001) Introduction to Micrometeorology. Academic Press, San Diego, 415 p.
[24] Jensen, M.E. and Haise, H.R. (1963) Estimating Evapotranspiration from Solar Radiation. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division, 89, 15-41.
[25] Van Bavel, C.H.M. (1956) Evapotranspiration, the ET Method, a New Way to Find a Right Time to Irrigate. Better Farming Methods, April 1956, 14.
[26] Wright, J.L. and Lemon, E.R. (1966) Photosynthesis under Field Conditions. VIII. Analysis of Windspeed Fluctuation Data to Evaluate Turbulent Exchange within a Corn Crop. Agronomy Journal, 58, 255-261.
[27] Wright, J.L. and Lemon, E.R. (1966) Photosynthesis under Field Conditions. IX. Vertical Distribution of Photosynthesis within a Corn Crop. Agronomy Journal, 58, 265-268.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.