Body and Muscle Growth of Pre-Larvae and Larvae of Turbot, Scophthalmus Maximus L., Reared at Three Different Temperatures


Three turbot groups were kept at 15℃ - 16℃ (Cold Temperature, T), 17℃ - 18℃ (ambient T) and 21℃ - 22℃(warm T) during the larval development in order to study the thermal influence on muscle growth and larval development in this species. During the early stages (2 - 6 days of post-hatching), the body and the muscle growth was scarce, although the hyperplasia increased slightly, being higher at ambient and at cold T than at warm T. In contrast, the highest value of hypertrophy was found in the warm group. At 15 days of age, the body length and muscle growth increased in all the groups, being significantly higher in the warm than in the rest of groups. Thus, the highest values of both the hypertrophy and the hyperplasia of the white muscle fibres were reached at warm T, although it was only significant for the hyperplasia. The end of the metamorphosis was reached at 29 days of age in the warm group, whereas in the rest of groups it was no observed yet. At this developmental stage, the warm group showed the typical morphological mosaic of the myotome, and it was accompanied by an increase of the transverse area of the white and the red muscles, parallel to an increase of both the hypertrophy and the hyperplasia of the muscle fibres. The hyperplasia of the white fibres was the parameter most significantly increased. Also, the body length increased significantly in this group, reaching ≈ 1.6 cm at this stage.

Share and Cite:

Ayala, M. , Lago, M. and Cal, R. (2015) Body and Muscle Growth of Pre-Larvae and Larvae of Turbot, Scophthalmus Maximus L., Reared at Three Different Temperatures. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 5, 402-410. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2015.54042.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Weatherley, A.H., Gill, H.S. and Lobo, A.F. (1988) Recruitment and Maximal Diameter of Axial Muscle Fibres in Teleosts and Their Relationship to Somatic Growth and Ultimate Size. Journal of Fish Biology, 33, 851-859.
[2] Ayala, M.D., López-Albors, O., Gil, F., Abellán, E., García-Alcázar, A., Abdel, I. and Latorre, R. (2005) Revisión: Influencia de la temperatura sobre el desarrollo y crecimiento muscular de la lubina, Dicentrarchus labrax L. Anales de Veterinaria de Murcia, 21, 55-68.
[3] Matsuoka, M. (1984) Morphometry of the Myotomal Muscle Fibres in Larvae and Juveniles of the Red Sea Bream. Bulletin of the Japanese Society for the Science of Fish, 50, 1811-1816.
[4] Johnston, I.A. (1993) Temperature Influences Muscle Differentiation and the Relative Timing of Organogenesis in Herring (Clupea harengus) Larvae. Marine Biology, 116, 363-379.
[5] Johnston, I.A., Vieira, V.L.A. and Abercromby, M. (1995) Temperature and Myogenesis in Embryos of the Atlantic Herring Clupea harengus. Journal of Experimental Biology, 198, 1389-1403.
[6] Johnston, I.A., Cole, N.J., Abercromby, M. and Vieira, V.L.A. (1998) Embryonic Temperature Modulates Muscle Growth Characteristics in Larval and Juvenile Herring. Journal of Experimental Biology, 201, 623-646.
[7] Gibson, S. and Johnston, I.A. (1995) Temperature and Development in Larvae of the Turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Marine Biology, 124, 17-25.
[8] Nathanailides, C., López-Albors, O. and Stickland, N.C. (1995) Influence of Prehatch Temperature on the Development of Muscle Cellularity in Posthatch Atlantic-Salmon (Salmo salar, L.). Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Science, 52, 675-680.
[9] Johnston, I.A. and Mclay, H.A. (1997) Temperature and Family Effects on Muscle Cellularity at Hatch and First Feeding in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 75, 64-74.
[10] Herzig, A. and Winkler, H. (1986) The Influence of Temperature on the Embryonic Development of Three Cyprinid Fishes, Aramis brama, Chalcalburnus chalcoides mento and Vimba vimba. Journal of Fish Biology, 28, 171-181.
[11] Blaxter, J.H.S. (1988) Pattern and Variety in Development. In: Hoar, W.S. and Randall, D.J., Eds., Fish Physiology, Volume XIA, Academic Press, New York, 1-58.
[12] Stickland, N.C., White, R.N., Mescall, P.E., Crook, A.R. and Thorpe, J.E. (1988) The Effect of Temperature on Myogenesis in Embryonic Development of the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar, L.). Anatomy and Embryology, 178, 253-257.
[13] Usher, M.L, Stickland, N.C. and Thorpe, J.E. (1994) Muscle Development in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Embryos and the Effect of Temperature on Muscle Cellularity. Journal of Fish Biology, 44, 953-964.
[14] Vieira, V.L.A. and Johnston, I.A. (1992) Influence of Temperature on Muscle-Fibre Development in Larvae of the Herring Clupea harengus. Marine Biology, 112, 333-341.
[15] Johnston, I.A., Cole, N.J., Vieira, V.L.A. and Davidson, I. (1997) Temperature and Developmental Plasticity of Muscle Phenotype in Herring Larvae. Journal of Experimental Biology, 200, 849-868.
[16] Brooks, S. and Johnston, I.A. (1993) Influence of Development and Rearing Temperature on the Distribution, Ultrastructure and Myosin Subunit Composition of Myotomal Muscle Fibre Types in the Plaice Pleuronectes platessa. Marine Biology, 117, 501-513.
[17] Ayala, M.D., López-Albors, O., Gil, F., Latorre, R., Vázquez, J.M., García-Alcázar, A., Abellán, E., Ramírez, G. and Moreno, F. (2000) Temperature Effects on Muscle Growth of the Axial Musculature of the Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 29, 235-241.
[18] Ayala, M.D., López-Albors, O., Gil, F., García-Alcázar, A., Abellán, E., Alarcón, J.M., álvarez, M.C., Ramírez-Zarzosa, G. and Moreno, F. (2001) Temperature Effects on Muscle Growth in Two Populations (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Sea Bass, Dicentrachus labrax L. Aquaculture, 202, 359-370.
[19] Ayala, M.D., López-Albors, O., García-Alcázar, A., Abellán, E., Latorre, R., Vázquez, J.M., Ramírez Zarzosa, G., Martínez, F. and Gil, F. (2003) Effect of Two Thermal Regimes on the Muscle Growth Dynamics of Sea Bass Larvae, Dicentrarchus labrax L. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 32, 271-275.
[20] López-Albors, O., Ayala, M.D., Gil, F., García-Alcázar, A., Abellán, E., Latorre, R., Ramírez-Zarzosa, G. and Vázquez, J.M. (2003) Early Temperature Effects on Muscle Growth Dynamics and Histochemical Profile of Muscle Fibres of Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax L., during Larval and Juvenile Stages. Aquaculture, 220, 385-406.
[21] Torres-Núñez, E., Cal, R. and Rotllant, J. (2014) Phenotypic Plasticity during Early Ontogeny in Cultured Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): Changes in Dorsal and Anal Fin Ray Counts by Water Temperature. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 30, 762-766.
[22] Ayala, M.D., Gómez, C., Santaella, M. and Cal, R. (2014) Lasting Temperature Effects on the Muscle Tissue, Body Growth and Fillet Texture of Adult Turbots, Scophthalmus maximus, L. Proceedings of the Aquaculture European Congress, San Sebastián, Spain, 14-17 October 2014, 94-95.
[23] Wanson, J.C. and Drochman, P. (1968) Epoxi Technique Inclusion for Electron Microscopy. Cell Biology, 38, 130-150.
[24] Ayala, M.D., Abellán, E., Arizcun, M., García-Alcázar, A., Navarro, F., Blanco, A. and López-Albors, O. (2013) Muscle Development and Body Growth in Larvae and Early Post-Larvae of Shi Drum, Umbrina cirrosa L., Reared under Different Larval Photoperiod: Muscle Structural and Ultrastructural Study. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 39, 807-827.
[25] Iglesias, J., Rodríguez-Ojea, G. and Peleteiro, J.B. (1995) Effect of Light and Temperature on the Development of Turbot Eggs (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Proceedings of the ICES Marine Science Symposium, 201, 40-44.
[26] Jones, A. (1972) Studies on Egg Development and Larval Rearing of Turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L., and Brill, Scophthalmus rhombus L., in the Laboratory. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 52, 965-986.
[27] Al-Maghazachi, S.J. and Gibson, R. (1984) The Developmental Stages of Larval Turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 82, 35-51.
[28] Yusa, T. (1958) Eggs and Larvae of Flatfishes in the Coastal Waters of Hokkaido. III. Post-Embryonic Development and Larvae of the Flatfish Lepidopsetta mochigarei Snyder. Bulletin of Hokkaido Regional Fish Research Laboratory, 18, 1-10.
[29] Yusa, T. (1961) Eggs and Larvae of Flatfishes in the Coastal Waters of Hokkaido. V. Embryonic Development of the Flatfish, Xystrias grigorjewi (Herzenstein). Bulletin of Hokkaido Regional Fish Research Laboratory, 19, 109-118.
[30] Fullarton, J.H. (1891) On the Development of the Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). 9th Annual Report of Fisheries Board of Scotland, 311-316.
[31] Ryland, J.S. (1966) Observations on the Development of Larvae of the Plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L., in Aquaria. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 30, 177-195.
[32] Patruno, M.G., Radaelli, G., Mascarello, F. and Candia Carnevali, M.D. (1998) Muscle Growth in Response to Changing Demands of Functions in the Teleost Sparus aurata (L.) during Development from Hatching to Juvenile. Anatomy and Embryology, 198, 487-504.
[33] Arizcun, M., López-Albors, O., García Alcázar, A., Orenes, M., Vázquez, J.M. and Abellán, E. (2005) Crecimiento del músculo blanco en larvas y postlarvas de dentón Dentex dentex L. Resúmenes del X Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura, Gandía.
[34] López-Albors, O., Arizcun, M., Abellán, E., Blanco, A., Ayala, M.D., Pastor, L.M. and Latorre, R. (2010) Posthatch Development of the Axial Musculature of the Common Dentex Dentex dentex, L (Teleostei). Histology and Histopathology, 25, 1557-1571.
[35] Kamler, E. (1992) Early Life History of Fish: An Energetics Approach. Chapman and Hall, London, 267 p.
[36] Campos, C., Fernandes, J.M.O., Conceição, L.E.C., Engrola, S., Vousa, V. and Valente, L.M.P. (2013) Thermal Conditions during Larval Pelagic Phase Influence Subsequent Somatic Growth of Senegaleses Sole by Modulating Gene Expression and Muscle Growth Dynamics. Aquaculture, 414-415, 46-55.
[37] García de la Serrana, D., Vieira, V.L.A., Andree, K.B., Darias, M., Estévez, A., Gisbert, E. and Johnston, I.A. (2012) Development Temperature Has Persistent Effects on Muscle Growth Responses in Gilthead Sea Bream. PLoS ONE, 7, 1-11.
[38] Galloway, T.F., Kjorsvik, E. and Kryvi, H. (1999) Muscle Growth in Yolk-Sac Larvae of the Atlantic Halibut as Influenced by Temperature in the Egg and Yolk-Sac Stage. Journal of Fish Biology, 55, 26-43.
[39] Johnston, I.A., Mclay, H.A., Abercromby, M. and Robbins, D. (2000) Early Thermal Experience Has Different Effects on Growth and Muscle Fibre Recruitment in Spring- and Autumn-Running Atlantic Salmon Populations. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 2553-2564.
[40] Johnston, I.A., Mclay, H.A., Abercromby, M. and Robbins, D. (2000) Phenotypic Plasticity of Early Myogenesis and Satellite Cell Numbers in Atlantic Salmon Spawning in Upland an Lowland Tributaries of a River System. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 2539-2552.
[41] Steinbacher, P., Marschallinger, J., Obermayer, A., Neuhofer, A., Sänger, A.M. and Stoiber, W. (2011) Temperature-Dependent Modification of Muscle Precursor Cell Behaviour Is an Underlying Reason of Lasting Effects on Muscle Cellularity and Body Growth of Teleost Fish. Journal of Experimental Biology, 214, 1791-1801.
[42] Johnston, I.A., Bower, N.I. and Macqueen, D.J. (2011) Growth and the Regulation of Myotomal Muscle Mass in Teleost Fish. Journal of Experimental Biology, 214, 1617-1628.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.