The Restorative Effect of the Environment on Organizational Cynicism and Work Engagement


The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between restorativeness, work engagement and organizational cynicism. A positive effect of restorativeness on work engagement and a negative effect on organizational cynicism are hypothesized. A self-report questionnaire was filled out by 247 employees. Results of hierarchical linear regression supported a positive effect of restorativeness in reducing both organizational cynicism and in fostering work engagement. The original contribution of this research is the analysis of the multivariate relationship between restorativeness (which is a relevant construct in environmental psychology) and relevant constructs deriving from the work and organizational psychology field (i.e., work engagement and cynicism in the workplace).

Share and Cite:

Bellini, D. , Ramaci, T. and Bonaiuto, M. (2015) The Restorative Effect of the Environment on Organizational Cynicism and Work Engagement. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 3, 124-135. doi: 10.4236/jhrss.2015.33017.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E. and Verbeke, W. (2004) Using the Job Demands-Resources Model to Predict Burnout and Performance. Human Resource Management, 43, 83-104.
[2] Hakanen, J., Bakker, A.B. and Schaufeli, W.B. (2006) Burnout and Work Engagement among Teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 495-513.
[3] Demerouti, E., Bakker, A.B., Nachreiner, F. and Schaufeli, W.B. (2001) The Job Demands-Resources Model of Burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512.
[4] Bakker, A.B. and Demerouti, E. (2007) The Job Demands-Resources Model: State of the Art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309-328.
[5] Lee, R.T. and Ashforth, B.E. (1996) A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Correlates of the Three Dimensions of Job Burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 123-133.
[6] Halbesleben, J.R.B. and Buckley, M.R. (2004) Burnout in Organizational Life. Journal of Management, 30, 859-879.
[7] Doi, Y. (2005) An Epidemiologic Review on Occupational Sleep Research among Japanese Worker. Industrial Health, 43, 3-10.
[8] Crawford, E.R., LePine, J.A. and Rich, B.L. (2010) Linking Job Demands and Resources to Employee Engagement and Burnout: A Theoretical Extension and Meta-Analytic Test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 834-848.
[9] Nahrgang, J.D., Morgeson, F.P. and Hofmann, D.A. (2011) Safety at Work: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Link between Job Demands, Job Resources, Burnout, Engagement, and Safety Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 71-94.
[10] Hartig, T. (2004) Restorative Environments. In: Spielberger, C., Ed., Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology, Academic Press, San Diego, 273-279.
[11] Kaplan, R. (1993) The Role of Nature in the Context of the Workplace. Landscape and Urban Planning, 26, 193-201.
[12] Kaplan, R. and Kaplan, S. (1989) The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. Cambridge University Press, New York.
[13] Kaplan, S. (1995) The Restorative Benefits of Nature: Toward an Integrative Framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15, 169-182.
[14] Kaplan, S. (2001) Meditation, Restoration, and the Management of Mental Fatigue. Environment and Behavior, 33, 480-506.
[15] Ulrich, R.S. (1983) Aesthetic and Affective Response to Natural Environments. In: Altman, I. and Wohlwill, J.F., Eds., Human Behavior and the Natural Environment, Plenum, New York, 85-125.
[16] Ulrich, R.S., Simons, R.F., Losito, B.D., Fiorito, E., Miles, M.A. and Zelson, M. (1991) Stress Recovery during Exposure to Natural and Urban Environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11, 201-230.
[17] Dean, J.W., Brandes, P. and Dharwadkar, R. (1998) Organizational Cynicism. Academy of Management Review, 23, 341-352.
[18] Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W.B. and Leiter, M.P. (2001) Job Burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422.
[19] Bellini, D., Fornara, F. and Bonaiuto (2015) The Case of Mediating Role of Work engagement. Psyechology, 6, 252- 286.
[20] Kaplan, S. and Talbot, J.F. (1983) Psychological Benefits of a Wilderness Experience. In: Altman, I. and Wohlwil, J.F., Eds., Behavior and the Natural Environment, Plenum, New York, 163-203.
[21] Cohen, S. and Spacapan, S. (1978) The After Effects of Stress: An Attentional Interpretation. Environmental Psychology and Nonverbal Behavior, 3, 43-57.
[22] James, W. (1892) Psychology. Henry Holt and Company, New York.
[23] Steg, L., Van den Berg, A.E. and de Groot, J.I.M. (2012) Environmental Psychology. An Introduction. British Psychological Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd., London.
[24] Hartig, T., van den Berg, A., Hagerhall, C., Tomalek, M., Bauer, N., Hansmann, R., Ojala, A., Syngollitou, E., Carrue, G., van Herzele, A., Bell, S., Podesta, M.T.C. and Waaseth, G. (2011) Health Benefits of Nature Experience: Psychological, Social and Cultural Processes. In: Nilsson, K., Ed., Forests, Trees and Human Health, Springer, New York, 127-167.
[25] Hartig, T., Evans, G.W., Jamner, L.D., Davis, D.S. and Garling, T. (2003) Tracking Restoration in Natural and Urban Field Settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 109-123.
[26] Shin, W.S. (2007) The Influence of Forest View through a Window on Job Satisfaction and Job Stress. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 22, 248-253.
[27] Bommer, W.H., Rich, G.A. and Rubin, R.S. (2005) Changing Attitudes about Change: Longitudinal Effects of Transformational Leader Behaviors on Employee Cynicism about Organizational Change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 733-753.
[28] Johnson, J. L. and O’Leary-Kelly, A.M. (2003) The Effects of Psychological Contract Breach and Organizational Cynicism: Not All Social Exchange Violations Are Created Equal. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 627-647.
[29] Maslach, C. and Leiter, M. P. (2008) Early Predictors of Job Burnout and Engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 498-512.
[30] Maslach, C. and Leiter, M.P. (2005) Stress and Burnout: The Critical Research. In: Cooper, C.L., Ed., Handbook of Stress Medicine and Health, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, London, 153-170.
[31] Maslach, C. and Leiter, M.P. (1997) The Truth about Burnout. Jossey Bass, San Francisco.
[32] Chiaburu, D.S., Peng, A.C., Oh, O.-S., Banks, G.C. and Lomeli, L.C. (2013) Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Organizational Cynicism: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 83, 181-197.
[33] Schaufeli, W.B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V. and Bakker, A.B. (2002) The Measurement of Engagement and Burnout: A Confirmative Analytic Approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71-92.
[34] Schaufeli, W.B. and Bakker, A.B. (2004) Job Demands, Job Resources and Their Relationship with Burnout and Engagement: A Multi-Sample Study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293-315.
[35] Saks, A.M. (2006) Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 600-619.
[36] Britt, T.W., Castro, C.A. and Adler, A.B. (2005) Self-Engagement, Stressors, and Health: A Longitudinal Study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1475-1486.
[37] Hackman, J.R. and Oldham, G.R. (1980) Work Redesign. Addison-Wesley, Reading.
[38] Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E. and Schaufeli, W.B. (2003) Dual Processes at Work in a Call Centre: An Application of the Job Demands-Resources Model. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12, 393-417.
[39] Bakker, A.B. and Demerouti, E. (2008) Towards a Model of Work Engagement. Career Development International, 13, 209-223.
[40] Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B. and Van Rhenen, W. (2009) How Changes in Job Demands and Job Resources Predict Burnout, Work Engagement, and Sickness Absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 893-917.
[41] Hobfoll, S.E. (1998) Stress, Culture, and Community: The Psychology and Physiology of Stress. Plenum, New York.
[42] Hobfoll, S.E. (2001) The Influence of Culture, Community, and the Nested-Self in the Stress Process: Advancing Conservation of Resources Theory. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50, 337-370.
[43] Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E., de Boer, E. and Schaufeli, W. (2003) Job Demands and Job Resources as Predictors of Absence Duration and Frequency. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62, 341-356.
[44] Evans, G.W. and Stecker R. (2004) Motivational Consequences of Environmental Stress. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 143-165.
[45] Balducci, C., Fraccaroli, F. and Schaufeli, W.B. (2010) Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). A Cross-Cultural Analysis. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 26, 144-150.
[46] Brandes, P., Dharwadkar, R. and Dean Jr., J.W. (1999) Does Organizational Cynicism Matter? Employee and Supervisior Perspectives on Work Outcomes. The 36th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Academy of Management, Philadelphia, 1-33.
[47] Bobbio, A., Manganelli Rattazzi, A.M. and Spadaro, S. (2006) Organizational Cynicism. Contribution to the Validation of the Italian Version of Brandes, Dhanvadkar & Dean’s Scale. Testing Psicometria Metodologia, 13, 5-23.
[48] Hartig, T., Korpela, K., Evans, T.P. and Garling, T. (1996) Validation of a Measure of Perceived Environmental Restorativeness. Goteborg Psychological Reports, 26, 1-64.
[49] Pasini, M., Berto, R., Scopelliti, M. and Carrus, G. (2009) Measuring the Restorative Value of the Environment: Contribution to the Validation of the Italian Version of the Perceived Restorativeness Scale. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 257, 3-11.
[50] Arbuckle, J.L. (1997) AMOS Users’ Guide. Version 3.6, Smallwaters Corporation, Chicago.
[51] Bagozzi, R.P., Yi, Y. and Phillips, L.W. (1991) Assessing Construct Validity in Organizational Research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 421-458.
[52] Stevens, J.S. (2009) Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences. Routledge, New York.
[53] Cousineau, D. and Chartier, S. (2010) Outliers Detection and Treatment: A Review. International Journal of Psychological Research, 3, 58-67.
[54] Tabachnick, B.G. and Fidell, L.S. (2012) Using Multivariate Statistics. 6h Edition, Person Education, Boston.
[55] Ulrich, R.S. (1984) View through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery. Science, 224, 420-421.
[56] Banks, G.C., Whelpley, C.E., Oh, I.-S. and Shin, K. (2012) (How) Are Emotionally Exhausted Employees Harmful? International Journal of Stress Management, 19, 198-216.
[57] Podsakoff, P.M., Mackenzie, S.B., Lee, J.Y. and Podsakoff, N.P. (2003) Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903.
[58] Brannick, M.T., Chan, D., Conway, J.M., Lance, C.E. and Spector, P.E. (2010) What Is Method Variance and How Can We Cope with It? A Panel Discussion. Organizational Research Methods, 13, 407-420.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.