Contributing to a Healthy Older Population of the Future: Investigating the Daily Walking Steps of Working Adults in Hong Kong


Developing a healthy lifestyle during adulthood is one of the essential factors to prepare for healthy aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study investigated the daily walking steps of 893 working adults from nine occupation categories in Hong Kong. Their daily walking steps were measured using a pedometer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the difference in daily walking steps between participants in different occupation category. Chi-square test was used to compare the difference in proportion of working adults in each occupation category who walked and did not walk 10,000 steps per day. Results reveal that the participants in average walked 8661 steps per day. “Plant and machine operators and assemblers” and “clerks” were the two least active groups. Participants from the nine occupation categories demonstrated a significant difference in the number of daily walking steps. Post hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between “plant and machine operators and assemblers” and “service workers and shop sales workers” (p < 0.01), as well as between “plant and machine operators and assemblers” and “craft and related workers” (p < 0.01). Participants from the nine occupation categories also demonstrated a significant difference in the proportion of those who walked and did not walk 10,000 steps per day. Owing to a large difference in number of participants in the nine occupation categories and other study limitations, further systematic investigation is indicated to confirm the study results. To summarize, working adults in Hong Kong are only somewhat active. Identifying the factors that deter the working adults from walking and the ways to promote walking among working adults is necessary to prepare a healthy older population of the future.

Share and Cite:

Lee, L. , Lam, S. , Wong, S. , Wong, A. and Yeung, C. (2015) Contributing to a Healthy Older Population of the Future: Investigating the Daily Walking Steps of Working Adults in Hong Kong. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 3, 22-31. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2015.39004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Sanders, K. (2006) Developing Practice for Healthy Ageing. Nurs Older People, 18, 18-21.
[2] World Health Organization (2010) Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health.
[3] World Health Organization (2009) Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks.
[4] Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (2008) Facts about County-Level Estimates of Leisure-Time Physical Activity.
[5] Department of Health (2013) Behavioural Risk Factor Survey (April 2012)—Main Report.
[6] Dunn, A.L., Marcus, B.H., Kampert, J.B., Garcia, M.E., Kohl, H.W. and Blair, S.N. (1997) Reduction in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: 6-Month Results from Project Active. Prev Med, 26, 883-892.
[7] Van Wormer, J.J. (2004) Pedometers and Brief e-Counselling: Increasing Physical Activity for Overweight Adults. J Appl Behav Anal, 37, 421-425.
[8] Yamanouchi, K., Takashi, T., Chilada, K., Nishikawa, T., Ito, K., Shimizu, S., et al. (1995) Daily Walking Combined with Diet Therapy Is a Useful Means for Obese NIDDM Patients Not Only to Reduce Body Weight but also to Improve Insulin Sensitivity. Diabetes Care, 18, 775-778.
[9] Miller, T.D., Balady, G.J. and Fletcher, G.F. (1997) Exercise and Its Role in the Prevention and Rehabilitation of Cardiovascular Disease. Ann Behav Med, 19, 220-229.
[10] Alevizos, A., Lentzas, J., Kokkoris, S., Mariolis, A. and Korantzopoulos, P. (2005) Physical Activity and Stroke Risk. Int J ClinPract, 59, 922-930.
[11] Tudor-Locke, C. and Bassett Jr., D.R. (2004) How Many Steps/Day Are Enough? Preliminary Pedometer Indices for Public Health. Sports Med, 34, 1-8.
[12] World Health Organization (2008) Preventing Non Communicable Diseases in the Workplace through Diet and Physical Activity. WHO/World Economic Forum Report of a Joint Event. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[13] LeMasurier, G.C., Sidman, C.L. and Corbin, C.B. (2003) Accumulating 10,000 Steps: Does This Meet Current Physical Activity Guidelines? Res Q Exerc Sport, 74, 389-394.
[14] Ainsworth, B.E., Haskell, W.L., Whitt, M.C., Irwin, M.L., Swartz, A.M., Strath, S.J., et al. (2000) Compendium of Physical Activities: An Update of Activity Codes and MET Intensity. MedSciSports Exerc, 32, S498-S516.
[15] Jordan, A.N., Jurca, G.M., Tudor-Locke, C., Church, T.S. and Blair, S.N. (2005) Pedometer Indices for Weekly Physical Activity Recommendations in Postmenopausal Women. Med Sci SportsExerc, 37, 1627-1632.
[16] Census and Statistics Department (2015) Hong Kong Statistics: Population.
[17] Lee, L.Y.K. and Fan, R.Y.K. (2014) Beliefs and Practices of Chinese Adults in Hong Kong toward Preparation for Healthy Ageing: A Qualitative Study. Asian J Gerontol Geriatr, 9, 61-66.
[18] Census and Statistics Department (2015) Hong Kong Statistics: Labour Force.
[19] Census and Statistics Department (2014) Hong Kong Statistics.
[20] Polit, D.F. and Beck, C.T. (2013) Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice. 8th Edition, Lippicnott, Philadelphia.
[21] Tudor-Locke, C. and Meyers, A.M. (2001) Methodological Considerations for Researchers and Practitioners Using Pedometers to Measure Physical (Ambulatory) Activity. Res Q ExercSport, 72, 1-12.
[22] De Cocker, K., De Bourdeaudhuij, I. and Cardon, G. (2009) What Do Pedometer Counts Represent? A Comparison between Pedometer Data and Data from Four Different Questionnaires. Public Health Nutr, 12, 74-81.
[23] Lam, S.C., Lee, L.Y.K., Wong, S.L. and Wong, A.K.P. (2012) Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Body Composition in Chinese Working Adults. J Nurs Scholarsh, 44, 205-214.
[24] Sugden, J.A., Sniehotta, F.F., Donnan, P.T., Boyle, P., Johnson, D.W. and McMurdo, M.E.T. (2008) The Feasibility of Using Pedometers and Brief Advice to Increase Activity in Sedentary Older Women—A Pilot Study. BMC Health Serv Res.
[25] Giannakidou, D.M., Kambas, A., Ageloussis, N., Fatouros, I., Christoforidis, C., Venetsanou, F., et al. (2102) The Validity of Two Omron Pedometers during Treadmill Walking Is Speed Dependent. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112, 49-57.
[26] Tudor-Locke, C., Burkett, L., Reis, J.P., Ainsworth, B.E., Macera, C.A. and Wilson, D.K. (2004) How Many Days of Pedometer Monitoring Predict Weekly Physical Activity in Adults? Prev Med, 40, 293-298.
[27] Field, A. (2007) Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. SAGE, Lon-don.
[28] Thompson, D.L., Rakow, J. and Perdue, S.M. (2004) Relationship between Accumulated Walking and Body Composition in Middle-aged Women. MedSciSports Exerc, 36, 911-914.
[29] Inoue, S., Ohya, Y., Odagiri, Y., Takamiya, T., Suijo, K., Kamada, M., et al. (2011) Sociodemographic Determinants of Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity among Japanese Adults. Am J Prev Med, 40, 566-571.
[30] Tudor-Locke, C., Bassett Jr., D.R., Rytherford, W.J., Ainsworth, B.E., Chan, C.B., Croteau, K., et al. (2008) BMI-Referenced Cut-Off Points for Pedometer-Determined Steps per Day in Adults. J Phys Act Health, 5, 126-139.
[31] Kirkcaldy, B.D. and Furnham, A. (1990) Personality and Sex Differences in Recreational Choices. Sportwissenschaft, 20, 43-55.
[32] Tudor-Locke, C., Ainsworth, B. and Whitt, M. (2001) The Relationship between Pedometer-determined Ambulatory Activity and Body Composition Variables. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 25, 1571-1578.
[33] Department of Health (2010) Action Plan to Promote Healthy Diet and Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong.
[34] Chan, C.B., Ryan, D.A.J. and Tudor-Locke, C. (2004) Health Benefits of a Pedometer-based Physical Activity Intervention in Sedentary Workers. Prev Med, 39, 1215-1222.
[35] Thomas, L. and Williams, M. (2006) Promoting Physical Activity in the Workplace: Using Pedometers to Increase Daily Activity Levels. Health Promot J Austr, 17, 97-102.
[36] Spence, J., Burgess, J., Rodgers, W. and Murray, T. (2009) Effect of Pretesting on Intentions and Behaviour: A Pedometer and Walking Intervention. Psychol Health, 24, 777-789.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.