Do Bt Transgenic Events Alter the Phenotypic Stability of Maize Hybrids?

DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.614234   PDF   HTML   XML   3,207 Downloads   3,664 Views  


Transgene insert location in the genome through different methods is random. Thus, alterations in the expression of desired trait may occur, as well as alterations in the expression of other characteristics of receptor plant. The purpose of this study was to compare Bt transgenic maize hybrids and the respective conventional isogenic hybrid in relation to adaptability and phenotypic stability. Field trails were set up in four locations of Minas Gerais, Brazil (Campo do Meio, Lavras, Madre de Deus and Paragua?u). A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications, and the treatment structure was a factorial 6 × 2, with six hybrids in the transgenic and conventional versions. Plant and ear height and grain yield were evaluated. To estimate stability, the Anicchiarico, Wricke and AMMI methodologies were used. Grain yield and ear height of the transgenic hybrids and their respective conventional isogenic hybrid did not differ. There are differences in the phenotypic stability between transgenic hybrids with Bt technology and their counterpart conventional isogenic hybrid.

Share and Cite:

Diniz, R. , Von Pinho, R. , Rodrigues Nunes, J. , Chamma Davide, L. , Veiga, A. and de Souza, J. (2015) Do Bt Transgenic Events Alter the Phenotypic Stability of Maize Hybrids?. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 2309-2316. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.614234.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] James, C. (2014) Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops. ISAAA, Ithaca. (ISAAA Brief, n. 49).
[2] Twyman, R.M., Christou, P. and Stöger, E. (2002) Genetic Transformation of Plants and Their Cells. In: Oksman-Caldentey, K.M. and Barz, W.H., Eds., Plant Biotechnology and Transgenic Plants, M. Dekker, New York, 111-141.
[3] Visarada, K.B.R.S., Meena, K., Aruna, C., Srujana, S., Saikishore, N. and Seetharama, N. (2009) Transgenic Breeding: Perspectives and Prospects. Crop Science, 49, 1555-1563.
[4] Scott, M.P. and Pollak, L.M. (2005) Transgenic Maize. Starch, 57, 187-195.
[5] Wang, F., Peng, S., Cui, K., Nie, L. and Huang, J. (2014) Field Performance of Bt Transgenic Crops: A Review. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 8, 18-26.
[6] Lynch, P.T., Jones, J., Blackhall, N.W., Davey, M.R., Power, J.B., Cocking, E.C., Nelson, M.R., Bigelow, D.M., Orum, T.V., Orth, C.E. and Schuh, W. (1995) The Phenotypic Characterization of R2 Generation Transgenic Rice Plants under Field and Glasshouse Conditions. Euphytica, 85, 395-401.
[7] Liu, W., Torisky, R.S., Mallister, K.P., Avdiushko, S., Hildebrand, D. and Collins, G.B. (1996) Somatic Embryo Cycling: Evaluation of a Novel Transformation and Assay System for Seed-Specific Gene Expression in Soybean. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture, 47, 33-42.
[8] Blanche, S.B., Myers, G.O., Zumba, J.Z., Caldwell, D. and Hayes, J. (2006) Stability Comparisons between Conventional and Near-Isogenic Transgenic Cotton Cultivars. Journal of Cotton Science, 10, 17-28.
[9] Magg, T., Melchinger, A.E., Klein, D. and Bohn, M. (2001) Comparison of Bt Maize Hybrids with Their Non-Transgenic Counterparts and Commercial Varieties for Resistance to Europea Corn Borer and for Agronomic Traits. Plant Breeding, 120, 397-403.
[10] Ramalho, M.A.P., Santos, J.B., Pinto, C.A.B.P., Souza, E.A., Gonçalves, F.M.A. and Souza, J.C. (2012) Genética na agropecuária. 5 Edition, UFLA, Lavras.
[11] Kang, M.S. (1998) Using Genotype by Environment Interaction for Crop Cultivar Blending Ability in AOT. Crop Science, 41, 199-252.
[12] Bernardo, R. (2010) Breeding for Quantitative Traits in Plants. 2nd Edition, Stemma Press, Woodbury.
[13] Kang, M.S. (2002) Genotype-Environment Interaction: Progress and Prospects. Quantitative Genetics, Genomics and Plant Breeding. CAB International.
[14] Ramalho, M.A.P., Ferreira, D.F. and Oliveira, A.C. (2012) Experimentação em genética e melhoramento de plantas. 3rd Edition, UFLA, Lavras.
[15] Pimentel-Gomes, F. (2009) Curso de estatística experimental. 15th Edition, FEALQ, Piracicaba.
[16] Statistical Analysis Software Institute (2000) SAS/STAT Software. Version 8.0. Cary.
[17] Cruz, C.D. (2013) Programa GENES: Estatística experimental e matrizes. UFV, Viçosa.
[18] Anicchiarico, P. (1992) Cultivar Adaptation and Recommendation from Alfafa Trials in Northern Italy. Journal Genetics and Breeding, 46, 269-278.
[19] Wricke, G. (1965). Zur berechning der okovalenz bei sommerweizen und hafer. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenzuchtung, 52, 127-138.
[20] Gauch, H.G. and Zobel, R.W. (1996) AMMI Analysis of Yield Trials. In: Kang, M.S. and Gauch, H.G., Eds., Genotype by Environment Interaction, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 85-122.
[21] Duarte, J.B. and Vencovsky, R. (1999) Interação genótipos x ambientes: Uma introdução à análise “AMMI”. Sociedade Brasileira de Genética, Ribeirão Preto.
[22] Resende, M.D.V. (2002) Genética biométrica e estatística no melhoramento de plantas perenes. Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, Brasília.
[23] Ferreira, F.S., Nozawa, S.R. and Souza, J.C. (2015) Consequences of Gene Stacking by Hybridization in Transgenic Plants. Euphytica (Online), 10.
[24] Gianessi, L.P. and Carpenter, J.E. (1999) Agricultural Biotechnology: Inset Control Benefits. National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy, Washington DC.
[25] Graeber, J.V., Nafzinger, E.D. and Mies, D.W. (1999) Evaluation of Transgenic Bt-containing Corn Hybrids. Journal Production Agricultural, 12, 659-663.
[26] Ma, B.L. and Subedi, K.D. (2005) Development, Yield, Grain Moisture and Nitrogen Uptake of Bt Corn Hybrids and Their Conventional Near-Isolines. Fields Crops Research, 93, 199-211.
[27] Laserna, M.P., Maddonni, G.A. and López, C.G. (2012) Phenotypic Variations between Non-Transgenic and Transgenic Maize Hybrids. Field Crops Research, 134, 175-184.
[28] Mungai, N.W., Motavalli, P.P., Nelson, K.A. and Kremer, R.J. (2005) Differences in Yields, Residue Composition and N Mineralization Dynamics of Bt and Non-Bt Maize. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 73, 101-109.
[29] Kang, M.S. and Magari, R. (1996) New Developments in Selecting for Phenotypic Stability in Crop Breeding. In: Kang, M.S. and Gauch Junior, H.G., Eds., Genotype by Environment Interaction, Elsevier, New York, 11-14.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.