Bond Strength of Brackets Bonded with Chemically and Light Activated Materials after Thermal Cycling


The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to tooth enamel with different polymer composites after simulated clinical aging, and analyze the enamel/ bond system fracture interface. 80 human premolars, were randomly divided into five groups (n = 16). G1: CO (Concise Ortodontica—3M ESPE), G2: SB (SuperBond—Ortho Source), G3: FMO (Fill Magic OrtodonticoVigodent), G4: TXT (Transbond XT—3M ESPE) and G5: TP (Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer + Transbond Plus Color Change—3M ESPE). In all groups, the metal orthodontic bracket was bonded to the tooth enamel surface. The specimens were submitted to 3000 thermal cycling baths for 30 s, at temperatures of 5°C, 37°C and 55°C (±1°C). Afterwards they were subjected to shear testing and the results were analyzed by the Student’s-t test (p < 0.05). G1 presented the highest bond strength value, followed by G4 > G5 > G2 > G3. In all groups the majority of the fractures at the interface of the specimens were cohesive, except in G3, which presented the largest number of adhesive fractures. After clinical aging, the chemically activated material (CO) showed higher bond strength than the light activated types (FMO, TXT and TP). The self-etching adhesive system (TP) showed similar bond strength to that of conventional systems (FMO and TXT).

Share and Cite:

Menezes-Silva, R. , dos Reis, L. , Tostes, B. , de Oliveira, D. and Santos, M. (2015) Bond Strength of Brackets Bonded with Chemically and Light Activated Materials after Thermal Cycling. Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, 5, 351-360. doi: 10.4236/ampc.2015.59035.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Correr Sobrinho, L., Correr, G.M., Consani, S., Sinhoreti, M.A.C. and Consani, R.L.X. (2002) Influence of Post-Fixation Time on Shear Bond Strength of Brackets Fixed with Different Bonding Materials. Pesquisa Odontológica Brasileira, 16, 43-49.
[2] Pithon, M.M., Dos Santos, R.L., de Oliveira, M.V., Ruellas, A.C. and Romano, F.L. (2006) Metallic Brackets Bonded with Resin-Reinforced Glass Ionomer Cements under Different Enamel Conditions. Angle Orthodontist, 4, 700-704.
[3] Bengtson, N.G., Bengtson, A.L., Carvalho, D.S. and Rossetto, S.M.A. (2003) Comparative Study of Brackets Bond Strength with for Bonding Agents. Revista Dental Press de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial, 8, 43-47.
[4] Danielle, M.P., Fábio, L.R., Ary, S.P., Lídia, P.M. and Darcy, F.N. (2005) Analysis of the Adhesion Quality of Different Metallic Bracket. Revista Dental Press de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial, 10, 88-93.
[5] Melo, T.R.N.B., Maia, A.M.A., Cavalcanti, A.L., Nascimento, A.B.L. and Valenca, A.M.G. (2006) Avaliacao da resistência ao cisalhamento de adesivos monocomponentes em dentes bovinos. Odontologia Clínico-Científica, 5, 275-280.
[6] Mondelli, A.L. and Feitas, M.R. (2007) Comparative Study of the Shear Bond Strength of the Resin/Bracket Interface, Using Three Different Resin Composites and Three Different Treatments in the Base of the Bracket. Revista Dental Press de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial, 12, 111-125.
[7] Isber, H., Ambrosio, A.R., Carvalho, P.E.G., Valle-Corotti, K.M. and Siqueira, D.F. (2011) Comparative in Vitro Study of the Shear Bond Strength of Brackets Bonded with Restorative and Orthodontic Resins. Brazilian Oral Research, 25, 49-55.
[8] International Standards Organization. ISO Standard 11405:2003: Dental Materials-Testing of Adhesion to Tooth Structure. The Organization, Geneva, 2003.
[9] Fowler, C.S., Swartz, M.L., Moore, B.K. and Rhodes, B.F. (1992) Influence of Selected Variables on Adhesion Testing. Dental Materials, 8, 265-9.
[10] Nakabayashi, M. and Takarada, K. (1992) Effect of HEMA on Bonding to Dentin. Dental Materials, 8, 125-130.
[11] Bishara, S.E., Vonwald, L., Laffoon, J.F. and Jakobsen, J.R. (2000) Effect of Altering the Type of Enamel Conditioner on the Shear Bond Strength of a Resin-Reinforced Glass Ionomer Adhesive. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 118, 288-294.
[12] Reynolds, I.R. (1975) A Review of Direct Orthodontic Bonding. British Journal of Orthodontics, 2, 171-180.
[13] Rinastiti, M., Ozcan, M., Siswomihardjo, W. and Busscher, H.J. (2011) Effects of Surface Conditioning on Repair Bond Strengths of Non-Aged and Aged Microhybrid, Nanohybrid, and Nanofilled Composite Resins. Clinical Oral Investigations, 15, 625-633.
[14] Davidson, C.L., Abdalla, A.I. and De Gee, A.J. (1993) An Investigation into the Quality of Dentin Bonding Systems for Accomplishing a Durable Bond. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 20, 291-300.
[15] Price, R.B., Derand, T., Andreou, P. and Murphy, D. (2003) The Effect of Two Configuration Factors, Time, and Thermalcycling on Resin to Dentin Bond Strengths. Bio-materials, 24, 1013-1021.
[16] Evans, L.B. and Powers, J.M. (1985) Factor Affecting in Vitro Bond Strength of No-Mix Orthodontic Cements. American Journal of Orthodontics, 87, 508-512.
[17] Kawakami, R.Y., Pinto, A.S., Goncalves, J.R., Sakima, M.T. and Gandini, L.G. (2003) In Vitro Evaluation of Debonding Pattern in Bonding Interface of Orthodontic Adhesive Materials to Impacted Teeth Enamel: 48-Hour and 10- Day Shear Bond Strengths. Revista Dental Press de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial, 8, 43-61.
[18] Correr Sobrinho, L., Consani, S., Sinhoretti, M.A.C., Correr, G.M. and Consani, R.L.X. (2001) Evaluation of Shear Bond Strengths of Bracket Bonding Using Different Materials. Revista ABO Nacional, 9, 157-162.
[19] Beech, D.R. and Jalaly, T. (1981) Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Some Orthodontic Direct Bonding Systems. Journal of Dental Research, 60, 972-928.
[20] Ianni, F.D., Silva, T.B.C., Simplício, A.H.M., Loffredo, L.C.M. and Ribeiro, R.P. (2004) Shear Bond Strength—In Vitro—Evaluation of Different Orthodontics Adhesive. Revista Dental Press de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial, 9, 9-48.
[21] Newman, G.V., Snyder, W.H. and Wilson Jr., C.E. (1968) Acrylic Adhesives for Bonding Attachments to Tooth Surfaces. The Angle Orthodontist, 38, 12-18.
[22] Penido, S.M.M.O., et al. (1998) Shear Resistance Evaluation of Recycled Brackets and New Rebonding Brackets. Revista Dental Press de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial, 3, 45-51.
[23] Buyukyilmaz, T., Usumez, S. and Karaman, A.I. (2003) Effect of Self-Etching Primers on Bond Strength: Are They Reliable. The Angle Orthodontist, 73, 64-70.
[24] Nkenke, E., Hirschfelder, U., Martus, F. and Eberhard, H. (1997) Evaluation of the Bond Strength of Different Bracket-Bonding Systems to Bovine Enamel. European Journal of Orthodontics, 19, 259-270.
[25] Penido, S.M.M.O., Penido, C.V.S.R., Pinto, A.S., Sakima, T. and Fontana, C.R. (2008) In Vivo and in Vitro Study, with or without Thermocycling, of Shear Bond Strength of Brackets Bonded with Halogen Light. Revista Dental Press de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial, 13, 66-76.
[26] Yassaei, S., Davari, A., Goldani, M. and Kamaei, A. (2014) Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of RMGI and Composite Resin for Orthodontic Bracket Bonding. Journal of Dentistry, 11, 282-289.
[27] Swift Jr., E.J., Perdigao, J. and Heymann, H.O. (1995) Bonding to Enamel and Dentin: A Brief History and State of the Art. Quintessence International, 26, 95-110.
[28] Fjeld, M. and Ogaard, B. (2006) Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Enamel Surfaces Exposed to 3 Orthodontic Bonding Systems. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 130, 575-581.
[29] Montasser, M.A., Drummond, J.L., Roth, J.R., Al-Turki, L. and Evans, C.A. (2008) Rebonding of Orthodontic Brackets. Part II: An XPS and SEM Study. The Angle Orthodontist, 78, 537-544.
[30] Cal-Neto, J.P. and Miguel, J.A. (2006) Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation of the Bonding Mechanism of a Self-Etching Primer on Enamel. The Angle Orthodontist, 76, 132-136.
[31] Banks, P. and Thiruvenkatachari, B. (2007) Long-Term Clinical Evaluation of Bracket Failure with a Self-Etching Primer: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Orthodontics, 34, 243-251.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.