Histological Types of Gastric Cancer and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Yaoundé


Introduction: The diffuse type of gastric adenocarcinoma has been found to be more prevalent in low risk countries like Cameroon. The objective of this study was to determine the most frequent histological type of gastric cancer found in Yaoundé and its association to the Helicobacter pylori infection. Materials and Methods: The registries of histopathology laboratories of 4 reference hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon have been reviewed for registered primitive gastric malignancies from July 2009 to May 2014. Paraffin blocks mounted on slides and stained with Hematoxylyn and Eosin of gastric cancer cases were re-stained Giemsa to search for Helicobacter pylori and they were classified using the criteria of Lauren in intestinal type or diffuse type. Results: Forty-two cases were reviewed: 25 (59.5%) of them were intestinal type of gastric adenocarcinoma, 11 (26.2%) were diffuse type, 4 (9.5%) were malignant gastric lymphoma, 1 (2.4%) was a stromal tumor, and 1 (2.4%) was a colloid carcinoma. The most common site of location was the proximal gastric portion (52.2%). The overall prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 88.1%, most common with the intestinal type (100%) and malignant lymphoma (100%) than with the diffuse type (72.2%) (p = 0.007). Conclusion: The most common type of gastric adenocarcinoma in Cameroon is the intestinal type and Helicobacter pylori infection is more common in the intestinal type and malignant gastric lymphoma than in the diffuse type. The Helicobacter pylori eradication campaigns are needed.

Share and Cite:

Ankouane, F. , Kowo, M. , Nonga, B. , Vouffo, F. , Nzoumé, J. , Njoya, O. and Ndam, E. (2015) Histological Types of Gastric Cancer and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Yaoundé. Journal of Cancer Therapy, 6, 701-708. doi: 10.4236/jct.2015.68077.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Roukos, D.H., Agnantis, N.J., Fatouros, M. and Kappas, A.M. (2002) Gastric Cancer: Introduction, Pathology, Epidemiology. Gastric Breast Cancer, 1, 1-3.
[2] Bohanes, P., Roth, A.D. and Huber, O. (2009) Cancer Gastrique, Une Prise en Charge Multidisciplinaire. Revue Médicale Suisse, 5, 1569-1575.
[3] Marcel, C., Ferlay, J., Franceschi, S., et al. (2012) Global Burden of Cancers Attributable to Infections in 2008: A Review and Synthetic Analysis. Lancet Oncology, 13, 607-615.
[4] Kamangar, F., Dores, G.M. and Anderson, W.F. (2006) Patterns of Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence across Five Continents: Defining Priorities to Reduce Cancer Disparities in Different Geographic Regions of the World. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24, 2137-2150.
[5] GLOBOCAN (2012) Estimated Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide in 2012.
[6] Enow-Orock, G.E., Ndom, P., Essame-Oyono, et al. (2012) Cancer Incidence in Yaoundé 2004-2006/2010-2011: Yaoundé Cancer Registry Technical Report. National Cancer Control Committee, Yaounde.
[7] Parkin, D.M. (2011) Cancers Attributable to Consumption of Alcohol in the UK in 2010. British Journal of Cancer, 105, S14-S18.
[8] Secretan, B., Straif, K., Baan, R., et al. (2009) A Review of Human Carcinogens—Part E: Tobacco, Areca Nut, Alcohol, Coal Smoke, and Salted Fish. Lancet Oncology, 10, 1033-1034.
[9] Uemura, N., Okamoto, S., Yamamoto, S., et al. (2001) Helicobacter pylori Infection and the Development of Gastric Cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 784-789.
[10] Suzuki, R., Shiota, S. and Yamaoka, Y. (2012) Molecular Epidemiology, Population Genetics and Pathogenic Role of Helicobacter pylori. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 12, 203-213.
[11] Helicobacter, Cancer Collaborative Group (2001) Gastric Cancer and Helicobacter pylori: A Combined Analysis of 12 Case Control Studies Nested within Prospective Cohorts. Gut, 49, 347-353.
[12] Graham, D.Y., Lu. H. and Yamaoka, Y. (2012) African, Asian or Indian enigma, the East Asian Helicobacter pylori: Facts or Medical Myths. Journal of Digestive Diseases, 14, 11-15.
[13] Segal, I., Ally, R. and Mitchell, H. (2001) Gastric Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 10, 479-482.
[14] Lauren, P. (1965) The Two Histological Main Types of Gastric Carcinoma: Diffuse and So Called Intestinal-Type Carcinoma: An Attempt at a Histoclinical Classification. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, 64, 31-49.
[15] Oota, K. and Sobin, L.H. (1977) International Histological Classification of Tumors. No. 18: Histological Typing of Gastric and Oesophageal Tumors. WHO, Geneva.
[16] Ngo Nonga, B., Pisoh, T.C., Ankouane, A.F., et al. (2012) Emergency Total Gastrectomy for Massive Haemorrhage in a Low Income Country. Port Harcourt Medical Journal, 6, 136-141.
[17] Mbakop, A., Ndam Ndjitoyap, E.C., Biwole, M., et al. (1989) Aspects anatomo-pathologiques et pronostiques des cancers gastriques au Cameroun. Publications médicales africaines, 22, 13-18.
[18] Olu, A. and Arigbabu, M.D. (1998) Gastric Cancer in Nigeria. Tropical Doctor, 18, 13-15.
[19] Ihsane, M., Nawal, L., Bahja, B., et al. (2014) Epidémiologie du cancer gastrique: Experience d’un centre hospitalier marocain. The Pan African Medical Journal, 17, 42.
[20] Elzouki, A.N., Buhjab, S.I., Alkialani, A., et al. (2012) Gastric Cancer and Helicobacter pylori Infection in the Eastern Libya: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study. Arab Journal of Gastroenterology, 13, 85-88.
[21] Ankouane Andoulo, F., Noah Noah, D., Tagni-Sartre, M., et al. (2013) Epidémiologie de l’infection à Helicobacter pylori à Yaoundé: De la particularité à l’énigme Africaine. The Pan African Medical Journal, 16, 115.
[22] Hartgrink, H.H., Jansen, E.P., Van Grieken, N.C., et al. (2009) Gastric Cancer. The Lancet, 374, 447-490.
[23] Polkowski, W., van Sandick, J.W., Offerhaus, G.J., et al. (1999) Prognostic Value of Lauren Classification and c-erbB-2 Oncogene over Expression in Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus and Gastroesophageal Junction. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 6, 290-297.
[24] Hu, B., Nassim, E.H., Sittler, S., et al. (2012) Gastric Cancer: Classification, Histology and Application of Molecular Pathology. Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology, 3, 251-261.
[25] Mabogunje, O.A., Subbuswamy, S.G. and Lawrie, J.H. (1978) The Two Histological Types of Gastric Carcinoma in Northern Nigeria. Gut, 19, 425-429.
[26] Caldas, C., Carneiro, F., Lynch, H.T., et al. (1999) Familial Gastric Cancer: Overview and Guidelines for Management. Journal of Medical Genetics, 36, 873-880.
[27] Kaneko, S. and Yoshimura, T. (2001) Time Trend Analysis of Gastric Cancer Incidence in Japan by Histological Types, 1975-1989. British Journal of Cancer, 84, 400-405.
[28] Parsonnet, J., Vandersteen, D., Goates, J., et al. (1991) Helicobacter pylori Infection in Intestinal- and Diffuse-Type Gastric Adenocarcinomas. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 83, 640-643.
[29] Fuccio, L., Zagari, R.M., Minardi, M.E. and Bazzoli, F. (2007) Systemic Review: Helicobacter pylori Eradication for Prevention of Gastric Cancer. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 25, 133-141.
[30] Hu, Y., Fang, J.Y. and Xiao, S.D. (2012) Is It Possible to Further Reduce the Incidence of Gastric Cancer in the New Century? Journal of Digestive Diseases, 14, 11-15.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.