Functional Vegetable-Based Sausages for Consumption by Children

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.25072   PDF   HTML     5,859 Downloads   9,374 Views   Citations


The dislike food preferences that children registered regarding vegetables and fish compromise the exposure to those iodine sources and may contribute to cause a nutritional deficiency in this micronutrient, causing serious damage of the brain and the central nervous system. Functional foods are becoming well-established in the market, focused on by an adult consumer more interested in healthy eating habits but without the motivation to optimize natural food preparation or to promote a wide variety of food in their diet. This article presents evidence of a new functional product concept, 100% vegetable, fermented soya based and salted by a red algae, that was approved by 900 parents who chose the sensorial features: distinctive aroma (57.9%), soft texture (38.4%), sausage shape (21%) and attractive color (77.9%). Three different varieties were developed: carrot (50% w/w), sugar-beet (50% w/w) and tomato (40% w/w) mini sausages, with tofu (20% w/w) and 0.8 % (w/w) of seaweed, reflecting trends that the younger consumer demands. The sensorial tests performed, after quality control assays, received very satisfactory acceptance by the potential buyer.

Share and Cite:

S. Burri, I. Tato, M. Nunes and R. Morais, "Functional Vegetable-Based Sausages for Consumption by Children," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2011, pp. 494-501. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.25072.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] World Health Organization, “Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic,” Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1997.
[2] World Health Organization, “Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic,” Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, WHO Technical Report Series 894, Geneva, 2000.
[3] A. Pietrobelli, S. Rugolotto, P. de Cristofaro and M. Malavolti, “Pediatric Obesity: Looking into Treatment,” Nutrients, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2009, pp. 197-209. doi:10.3390/nu1020197
[4] I. do Carmo, O. dos Santos, J. Camolas, J. Vieira, M. Carreira, L. Medina, L. Reis, J. Myatt and A. Galv?o-Teles, “Overweight and Obesity in Portugal: National Prevalence in 2003-2005,” Obesity Reviews, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2007, pp. 11-19. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00422.x
[5] S. W. Keith, D. T. Redden, P. T. Katzmarzyk, M. M. Boggiano, E. C. Hanlon, R. M. Benca, D. Ruden, A. Pietrobelli, J. L. Barger, K. R. Fontainer, C. Wang, L. J. Aronne, S. M. Wright, M. Baskin, N. V. Dhurandhar, M. C. Lijoi, C. M. Grilo, M. DeLuca, A. O. Westfall and D. B. Allison, “Putative Contributors to the Secular Increase in Obesity: Exploring the Roads Less Traveled,” International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 30, 2006, pp. 1585-1594. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803326
[6] L. J. Cooke, J. Wardle, E. L. Gibson, M. Sapochnik, A. Sheiham and M. Lawson, “Demographic, Familial and Trait Predictors of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption by Preschool Children,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2004, pp. 295-302. doi:10.1079/PHN2003527
[7] C. L. Perry, D. B. Bishop, G. Taylor, D. M. Murray, R. W. Mays, B. S. Dudovitz, M. Smyth and M. Story, “Changing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Children: The 5-a-Day Power Plus Program in St Paul, Minnesota,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 88, No. 4, 1998, pp. 603-609. doi:10.2105/AJPH.88.4.603
[8] K. Resnicow, M. Smith, T. Baranowski, J. Baranowski, R. Vaughan and M. Davis, “2-Year Tracking of Children’s Fruit and Vegetable Intake,” Journal of American Dietetic Association, Vol. 98, No. 7, 1998, pp. 785-789. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(98)00177-1
[9] M. R. Singer, L. L. Moore, E. J. Garrahie and R. C. Ellison, “The Tracking of Nutrient Intake in Young Children: The Framingham Children’s Study,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 82, No. 12, 1995, pp. 1673-1677. doi:10.2105/AJPH.85.12.1673
[10] R. H. Liu, “Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables are from Additive and Synergistic Combination of Phytochemicals,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 3, 2003, pp. 517S-520S.
[11] European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), “Complementary Feeding: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2008, pp. 99-100. doi:10.1097/
[12] J. Westenhoefer, “Establishing Good Dietary Habits—Capturing the Minds of Children,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 4, No. 1A, 2001, pp. 125-130. doi:10.1079/PHN2000107
[13] WHO, UNICEF and ICCIDD, “Indicators for Assessing Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control through Salt Iodization,” World Health Organization, Geneva, 1994.
[14] F. Delange, “Iodine Requirements during Pregnancy, Lactation and the Neonatal Period and Indicators of Optimal Iodine Nutrition,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 10, No. 12A, 2007, pp. 1571-1580. doi:10.1017/S1368980007360941
[15] P. Burtin, “Nutritional Value of Seaweeds,” Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2003, pp. 498-503.
[16] G. Papenfuss, “Notes on Algal Nomenclature—Various Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyceae,” Phykos, Vol. 5, No. 1-2, 1967, pp. 95-105.
[17] G. W. Saunders, “Routine DNA Barcoding of Canadian Gracilariales (Rhodophyta) Reveals the Invasive Species Gracilaria vermiculophylla in British Columbia,” Molecular Ecology Resources, Vol. 9, No. S1, 2009, pp. 140-150. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0998.2009.02639.x
[18] M. Thomsen, P. Staehr, C. Nyberg, S. Schwaerter, D. Krause-Jensen and B. Silliman, “Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, 1967 (Rhodophyta, Gracilari- aceae) in Northern Europe, with Emphasis on Danish Con- ditions, and What to Expect in the Future,” Aquatic Invasion, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2007, pp. 83-94. doi:10.3391/ai.2007.2.2.1
[19] J. Rueness, “Life History and Molecular Sequences of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): a New Introduction to European Waters,” Phycologia, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2005, pp. 120-128. doi:10.2216/0031-8884(2005)44[120:LHAMSO]2.0.CO;2
[20] A. M. Bellorin, M. C. Oliveira and E. C. Oliveira, “Gracilaria vermiculophylla: A Western Pacific Species of Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta) First Recorded from Eastern Pacific,” Phycological Research, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2004, pp. 69-79. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1835.2004.tb00317.x
[21] X. Hou and X. Yan, “Study of the Concentration and Seasonal Variation of Inorganic Elements in 35 Species of Marine Algae,” The Science of Total Environment, Vol. 222, No. 3, 1998, pp. 141-156. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00299-X
[22] M. Munilla, I. Gomez-Pinilla, S. Ródenas and M. Larrea, “Determination of Metals in Seaweeds Used as Food by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic-Emission Spectrometry,” Analysis, Vol. 23, No. 9, 1995, pp. 463-466.
[23] Réglementation Algues Alimentaires MAJ 2010, Synthése CEVA Avril, 2010.
[24] E. Cashdan, “Adaptiveness of Food Learning and Food Aversions in Children,” Social Science Information, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1998, pp. 613-632. doi:10.1177/053901898037004003
[25] E. L. Gibson, J. Wardle and C. J. Watts, “Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, Nutritional Knowledge and Beliefs in Mothers and Children,” Appetite, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1998, pp. 205-228. doi:10.1006/appe.1998.0180
[26] L. Cooke, J. Wardle and E. Gibson, “The Relationship between Child Food Neophobia and Everyday Food Consumption,” Appetite, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2003, pp. 95-96. doi:10.1016/S0195-6663(03)00048-5
[27] J. D. Skinner, B. R. Carruth, W. Bounds and P. J. Ziegler, “Children’s Food Preferences: A Longitudinal Analysis,” Journal of American Dietetic Association, Vol. 102, No. 11, 2002, pp. 1638-1647. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90349-4
[28] A. Drewnowski, and C. Gomez-Carneros, “Bitter Taste, Phytonutrients and the Consumer: A Review,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 6, 2000, pp. 1424-1435.
[29] X. L. Hou, C. F. Chai, Q. F. Qian, X. J. Yan and X. Fan, “Determination of Chemical Species of Iodine in Some Seaweed’s (I),” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 204, No. 3, 1997, pp. 215-221. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(97)00182-4
[30] R. Liu, “Potencial Synergy of Phytochemicals in Cancer Prevention: Mechanism of Action,” The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 134, No. 12, 2004, pp. 3479S-3484S.
[31] World Cancer Research Fund, “Food Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective,” American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, 1995, pp. 13-15.
[32] European Commission Concerted Action on Functional Food Science in Europe, “Scientific Concepts of Functional Foods in Europe”, British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 81, No. S1, 1999, pp. S1-S27.
[33] K. Montgomery, “Soya Protein: Nutrition Column,” The Journal of Perinatal Education, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2003, pp. 42-45.
[34] R. Morais, “Functional Foods—An Introductory Course,” Greca Artes Gráficas—Escola Superior de Biotecnologia/UCP, Porto, 2001.
[35] PHLS Working Group (R. J. Gilbert, J. de Louvois, T. Donovan, C. Little, K. Nye, C. D. Ribeiro, J. Richards, D. Roberts and F. J. Bolton), “Guidelines for the Microbiological Quality of Some Ready-to-Eat Foods Sampled at the Point of Sale of the PHLS Advisory Committee for Food and Dairy Products,” Commun Disease Public Health, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2000, pp. 163-167.
[36] Normalisation Fran?aise XP V 09-500, “Analyse sensorielle. Directives Genérales Pour la Réalization d’épreuves Hédoniques en Laboratoire d’évaluation Sensorielle ou en salle en Conditions Contr?lées Impliquant dês Con- sommateurs, ” AFNOR, France, 2000.
[37] D. Peryam, N. Girardot, “Advanced Taste-Test Method,” Food Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 7, 1952, pp. 58-61.
[38] D. Peryam, F. Pilgrim, “Hedonic Scale Method of Measuring Food Preferences,” Food Technology, Vol. 11, No. S1, 1957, pp. 9-14.
[39] W. G. Cochran and G. M. Cox, “Experimental Design,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1957.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.