Share This Article:

Analisys of Immunohistochemical Prognostic Markers in Canine Mammary Cancer and Its Relation to Postsurgical Survival

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:431KB) PP. 90-99
DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2015.53013    3,936 Downloads   4,510 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Background: Several animal models, including dogs, have been useful to compare the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasm in humans, showing biological parallelism in the growth and development of breast cancer. The causes of cancer could be attributed to change in several tumor suppressor genes. The relationship between molecule associated to senescence and clinical prognosis of patients affected by mammary cancer is little known. Beyond a collection of data, the major interest of the present study was to carry out a clinical follow-up of patients affected by these tumors, through association with new molecular markers by immunohistochemical technic. Upon completing the study, 15 patients survived, while 45 died. In the case of malignant neoplasms, 40 patients died because of the illness. The type of surgery most used by veterinarian surgeons was the simple lumpectomy, followed by the regional mastectomy. Sentinel node was removed by surgery only when clearly affected. Result: Markings against steroid hormones were positive. Regarding the markings against HER2 and Ki-67, they were negative in all cases. The markings against P53 and CD31 were all positives. Markings against molecules associated with cellular senescence were all positives. No statistical differences were found in immunomarcation for the different antigens used as clinical prognosis factors in mammary neoplasms. Conclusions: According to the study conditions, the survival of patients affected by breast tumors is directly related to diagnosis and malignancy histological grade, but not to animal breed, number of affected glands or patient reproductive status. On the other hand, immunohistochemical markings were not related to the patient prognosis. For this reason, it is important to highlight the persistance of a high percentage of mammary neoplasm cases clinically diagnosed with poor results on patient survival. Thus, educating owners and veterinarians for using diagnostic available tools to improve the prognosis after surgical animals affected by breast cancer is quite necessary.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Pedraza-Ordoñez, F. , Montoya-Florez, L. , Bulla, C. and Rocha, N. (2015) Analisys of Immunohistochemical Prognostic Markers in Canine Mammary Cancer and Its Relation to Postsurgical Survival. Open Journal of Pathology, 5, 90-99. doi: 10.4236/ojpathology.2015.53013.

References

[1] Munson, L. and Moresco, A. (2007) Comparative Pathology of Mammary Gland Cancers in Domestic and Wild Animals. Breast Disease, 28, 7-21.
[2] Torres, G. and Botero, L. (2008) Estudio histopatológico retrospectivo de neoplasias de glándula mamaria en caninos (1975-2000). Revista Orinoquia, 12, 80-88.
[3] Vásquez, T., Krygier, G., Barrios, E., Cataldi, S., Vázquez, A., Alonso, R., Estellano, F., Folle, E., Laviña, R., Delgado, F. and Pressa, C. (2005) Análisis de sobrevida de una población con cáncer de mama y su relación con factores pronósticos: estudio de 1.311 pacientes seguidas durante 230 meses. Revista Médica del Uruguay, 21, 107-121.
[4] Pardo, C. and Murillo, M. (2002) Casos nuevos de cancer en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Colombia. Revista Colombiana de Cancerologia, 7, 4-19.
[5] Kumaraguruparan, R., Prathiba, D. and Nagini, S. (2006) Of Humans and Canines: Immunohi-stochemical Analysis of PCNA, Bcl-2, p53, Cytokeratin and ER in Mammary Tumors. Research in Veterinary Science, 81, 218-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2005.08.002
[6] Uva, P., Aurisicchio, L., Watters, J., Loboda, A., Kulkarni, A., Castle, J., Palombo, F., Viti, V., Mesiti, G., Zappulli, V., Marconato, L., Abramo, F., Ciliberto, G., Lahm, A., La Monica, N. and Rinaldis, E. (2009) Comparative Expression Pathway Analysis of Human and Canine Mammary Tumors. BMC Genomics, 10, 135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-10-135
[7] Kanae, Y., Endoh, D., Yocota, H., Taniyama, H. and Hayashi, M. (2006) Expression of the PTEN Tumor Suppressor Gene in Malignant Mammary Gland Tumors of Dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 67, 127-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.67.1.127
[8] Lee, C., Kim, W., Lim, J., Kang, M., Kim, D. and Kweon, K. (2004) Mutation and Overexpression of p53 as a Prognostic Factor in Canine Mammary Tumors. Journal of Veterinary Science, 5, 63-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.66.63
[9] Klopfleisch, R. and Gruber, A. (2009) Differential Expression of Cell Cycle Regulators p21, p27 and p53 in Metastasizing Canine Mammary Adenocarcinomas versus Normal Mammary Glands. Research in Veterinary Science, 87, 91-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2008.12.010
[10] Zaidan, M. (2008) The Search Suitable Pronostic Markers for Canine Mammary Tumors: A Promising Outlook. The Veterinary Journal, 177, 3-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.10.015
[11] Millanta, F., Silvestri, G., Vaselli, C., Citi, S., Pisani, G., Lorenzi, D. and Poli, A. (2006) The Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Its Receptor Flk/KDR in Promoting Tumour Angiogenesis in Feline and Canine Mammary Carcinomas: A Preliminary Study of Autocrine and Paracrine Loops. Research in Veterinary Science, 81, 350-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2006.01.007
[12] De lasMulas, J.M., Millan, Y. and Dios, R. (2005) A Prospective Analysis of Immunohistochemically Determined Estrogen Receptor α and Progesterone Receptor Expression and Host and Tumor Factors as Predictors of Disease Free Period in Mammary Tumors of the Dog. Veterinary Pathology, 42, 200-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1354/vp.42-2-200
[13] Sorenmo, K. (2003) Canine Mammary Gland Tumors. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 33, 573-596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0195-5616(03)00020-2
[14] Novasad, A.C. (2003) Principles of Treatment for Mammary Gland Tumors. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, 18, 107-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/svms.2003.36625
[15] Whithrow, J. and Vail, D. (2007) Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 4th Edition, Elsevier, St. Louis.
[16] Nieto, A., Perez-Alenza, M.D., Del Castillo, N., Tabanera, E., Castano, M. and Pena, L. (2003) BRCA1 Expression in Canine Mammary Dysplasias and Tumors: Relationship with Prognostic Variables. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 128, 260-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jcpa.2002.0631
[17] Löhr, C.V., Teifke, J.P., Failing, K. and Weiss, E. (1997) Charaterization of the Proliferation State in Canine Mammary Tumors by Standardized AgNOR Method with Postfixation and Inmunohistologic Detection of Ki-67 and PCNA. Veterinary Pathology, 34, 212-221.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030098589703400306
[18] Peña, L.L., Nieto, A.I., Pérez-Alenza, D., Cuesta, P. and Castãno, M. (1998) Immunohistochemical Detection of Ki-67 and PCNA in Canine Mammary Tumors: Relationship to Clinical and Pathologic Variables. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 10, 237-246.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063879801000303
[19] Greenblatt, M.S., Bennett, W.P., Hollstein, M. and Harris, C.C. (1994) Mutations in the p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene: Clues to Cancer Etiology and Molecular Pathogenesis. Cancer Research, 54, 4855-4878.
[20] Chung-Ho, L., Wan-Hee, K., Ji-Hey, L., Min-Soo, K., Dae-Yong, K. and Oh-Kyeong, K. (2004) Mutation and Overexpression of p53 as a Prognostic Factor in Canine Mammary Tumors. Journal of Veterinary Science, 5, 63-69.
[21] Veldhoen, N., Watterson, J., Brash, M. and Milner, J. (1999) Identification of Tumour-Associated and Germ Line p53 Mutations in Canine Mammary Cancer. British Journal of Cancer, 81, 409-415.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6690709
[22] Ahad, M., Elahe, K., Pejman, M., Farkhondeh, B. and Iraj, S.H. (2012) Overexpression of HER-2/neu in Malignant Mammary Tumors; Translation of Clinicopathological Features from Dog to Human. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13, 6415-6421.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.12.6415
[23] Millanta, F., Calandrella, M., Bari, G., Niccolini, M., Vannozzi, I. and Poli, A. (2005) Comparison of Steroid Receptor Expression in Normal, Dysplastic and Neoplastic Canine and Feline Mammary Tissues. Research in Veterinary Science, 79, 225-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2005.02.002
[24] Dutra, A.P., Granja, N.V., Schmitt, F.C. and Cassali, G.D. (2004) C-erbB-2 Expression and Nuclear Pleomorphism in Canine Mammary Tumors. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 37, 1673-1681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2004001100013
[25] Yang, Q., Mori, I., Sakurai, T., Yoshimura, G., Suzuma, T., Nakamura, Y., Nakamura, M., Taniguchi, E., Tamaki, T., Umemura, T. and Kakudo, K. (2001) Correlation between Nuclear Grade and Biological Prognostic Variables in Invasive Breast Cancer. Breast Cancer, 8, 105-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02967488
[26] Kanavaros, P., Stefanaki, K., Rontogianni, D., Papalazarou, D,, Sgantzos, M., Arvanitis, D., Vamvouka, C., Gorgoulis, V., Siatitsas, I., Agnantis, N.J. and Bai, M. (2001) Immunohistochemical Expression of p53, p21/Waf1, rb, p16, Cyclin D1, p27, Ki67, Cyclin A, Cyclin B1, bcl2, Bax and Bak Proteins and Apoptotic Index in Normal Thymus. Histology and Histopathology, 16, 1005-1012.
[27] Serrano, M. (2010) A Lower Bar for Senescence. Nature, 464, 363-364.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/464363a
[28] Manee-in, S., Sayamon, S., Chainarong, L. and Sudson, S. (2009) The Number of ERα and PR in the Mammary Glands of Bitches with and without Tumor Mass Using Immunohistochemical Assay. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 18, 221-227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00580-008-0786-3
[29] Slatter, D. (2003) Textbook of Small Animal Surgery. 3rd Edition, Saunders, Philadelphia.
[30] Cassali, G.D., Lavalle, G.E., De Nardi, A.B., Ferreira, E., Bertagnolli, A.C. and Estrela-Lima, A. (2011) Consensus for the Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment of Canine Mammary Tumors. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Pathology, 4, 153-180.
[31] Semenzati, G.O., Martins, R.H.G., Salgado, B.S. and Rocha, N.S. (2012) Matheus SMM: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study of the Expression of p53 and Ki-67 Proteins in the Mucosa of the Tongue, Pharynx and Larynx of Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke. Inhalation Toxicology, 24, 723-731. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08958378.2012.715317
[32] Bonagura, J.D. and Twedt, D.C. (2009) KIRKTerapeutica Veterinaria Actual XIV. Elsevier, Barcelona.
[33] Ferreira, G.M., Pedraza, F.J. and Arango, M. (1997) Neoplasias de glandula mamaria canina diagnosticadas en Medellín, Colombia, entre 1968 y 1994. Veterinaria México, 28, 257-259.
[34] Eraso, M.F. and Cruz, J.M. (2009) Sobrevida postmastectomia en hembras caninas con tumores mamarios maligno. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 22, 405.
[35] Moulton, J.E. (1990) Tumors in Domestic Animals. 3rd Edition, University of California Press, Berkley.
[36] Fossum, T.H. (2009) Cirugia en Pequeños Animales: 3ra Edition, Elsevier, Barcelona.
[37] Murillo, S.M., Pedraza, F.J. and Ferreira, G. (2008) Analisis retrospectivo de 124 casos de neoplasia mamaria en caninos de la ciudad de Manizales. Veterinaria y Zootecnia, 2, 21-28.
[38] Thrusfield, M.V. (2010) Ageing in Animal Populations—An Epidemiological Perspective. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 142, S22-S32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2009.10.014
[39] Pinheiro, L.P., Oliveira, R.S., Vasques, H.D., Filgueira, P.H., Aragão, D.H., Barbosa, P.M., Beserra, H.E. and Cavalcante, R.V. (2009) Hemosiderin: A New Marker for Sentinel Lymph Node Identification. Acta Cirurgica Brasileira, 24, 432-436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-86502009000600002

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.