New Method for the Production of Barium Humate from Turkish Coal


Metal humates have been generally produced from water soluble alkaline humates with the related metal salts. In this study, a new method for the production of barium humate (Ba-HA) from Turkish coal was developed. Insoluble Ba-HA was produced from the result of the extraction of coal directly with barium hydroxide at 120. The effect of the amount of raw materials on the solubility and on the content of barium metal was investigated. The pilot plant trial was performed by using 100 kg of coal in one batch based on laboratory results. Ba-HA was characterized by means of FTIR and TGA. The calcination of Ba-HA at the different temperatures and in atmosphere of nitrogen and air was realized to provide the increase in the surface area and the decrease in the chromatographic groups giving yellow color. In terms of the surface area and UV-absorbance values, the calcination condition was selected as the temperature of 350 and atmosphere of air. The calcinated Ba-HA was used in the adsorption of some heavy metals. The results show that Ba-HA may have potential to be used as a low cost, natural and eco-friendly adsorbent.

Share and Cite:

Dogan, H. , Koral, M. , Vatansever, A. , Inan, T. , Ziypak, M. , Olgun, Z. and Beker, Ü. (2015) New Method for the Production of Barium Humate from Turkish Coal. Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, 5, 290-298. doi: 10.4236/aces.2015.53029.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Stevenson, F.J. (1994) Humus Chemistry. Genesis, Composition, Reactions. 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York.
[2] Erdogan, S., Baysal, A., Akba, O. and Hamamci, C. (2007) Interaction of Metals with Humic Acid Isolated from Oxidized Coal. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 16, 671-675.
[3] Novák J., Kozler J., Jano P., Cezíková, J., Tokarová, V. and Madronová, L. (2001) Humic Acids from Coals of the North-Bohemian Coal Field: I. Preparation and Characterisation Reactive and Functional Polymers, 47, 101-109.
[4] Tipping, E. (2002) Cation Binding by Humic Substances. Cambridge Environmental Chemistry Series-12. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[5] Janos, P., Herzogová, L., Rejnek, J. and Hodslavská, J. (2004) Assessment of Heavy Metals Leachability from Metallo-Organicsorbent—Iron Humate—With the Aid of Sequential Extraction Test. Talanta, 62, 497-501.
[6] Chassapis, K., Roulia, M. and Nika, G. (2010) Fe(III)-Humate Complexes from Megalopolis Peaty Lignite: A Novel Eco-Friendly Fertilizer. Fuel, 89, 1480-1484.
[7] Krízenecká, S., Hejda, S., Machovic, V. and Trögl, J. (2014) Preparation of Iron, Aluminium, Calcium, Magnesium, and zinc Humates for Environmental Applications. Chemical Papers, 68, 1443-1451.
[8] Seki, H. and Suzuki, A. (1995) Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions onto Insolubilized Humic Acid. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 171, 490-494.
[9] Krumins, J., Klavins, M., Seglins, V. and Kaup, E. (2012) Comparative Study of Peat Composition by using FT-IR Spectroscopy. Material Science and Applied Chemistry, 26, 106-114.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.