Compressed Bricks Made of Makabaye and Pitoaré Clay: Implementation and Production


In a strong commitment to economic valorisation that began a decade and relevant contribution to the problems of housing and creation of small jobs response, the Cameroonian government has invested heavily in promoting use of local materials through the creation of MIPROMALO (Mission for Promotion of local Materials) in 1991 (economic crisis), and through the signing of government circular from the Prime Minister, thus placing its development policies in prior to any development strategy more distant prospect. It was then that housing through development of local building materials becomes one of major policy priorities of Cameroonian’s government. However, there is a low valuation thereof despite availability of local materials and political will expressed in Circular No. 002/CAB/PM of 12 March 2007 on the use of local materials in construction of public buildings. In this study, we analyse the contribution that can play promotion of local materials in construction in the Sahel zone which for a harmonious sustainable development. Specifically, it’s to highlight the added value of using local materials, propose strategies for implementation and production of compressed bricks. This scientific work has therefore a double interest, scientific and technological industrial view and contributes to the development, promotion of local materials and the development of soil and/or basement areas. We arrived after analysis of our data to the conclusion that valuation of clay materials from Maroua’s town was a factor for economic growth and sustainable development. This inventory allows us to implement and produce prototypes suitable compressed bricks, shapes of housing in Sahel zone. However, physical and geotechnical tests on materials clay (raw materials for production of bricks), allow us to better assess characteristics of clay before production of bricks. Well after we submit our bricks to various mechanical and technological tests to assess their ability to withstand loads in extreme temperature conditions of Sahel zone.

Share and Cite:

Touolak, B. , Nya, F. , Haulin, E. , Yanne, E. and Ndjaka, J. (2015) Compressed Bricks Made of Makabaye and Pitoaré Clay: Implementation and Production. Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, 5, 191-204. doi: 10.4236/ampc.2015.56020.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Circular No. 002/CAB/PM of 12 March 2007 on the Use of Local Materials in the Construction of Public Buildings to R+1.
[2] Minla Mfou’ou, J. (2006) Decentralisation, an Opportunity to Improve the Development and Local Governance. Common Examples in Cameroon, Expenditure of Initiatives Group.
[3] (2007) Masters Series Community Project.
[4] Tobie Hond, J. (2011) Decentralisation and Strengthening of Local Governance Capacities: A Policy and National Development Strategy. The Experience of Cameroon, Tangier.
[5] Bral, C., Dufourni, L. and Van den Bossche, J. (2007) Terracotta and Engineering. No. 119, Lannoo Drukerry, Brussels.
[6] Coulombel, J., Duquenoy, M. and Terrones, O. (2010) Earthen to Construct. Europe and the Environment.
[7] Association of Belgian Brick (2006) Terracotta Brick—The Choice of Sustainable Construction. Rue des Chartreux, Brussels.
[8] Association of Belgian Brick (2008) Bricks Manual. Ruedes Chartreux, Brussels.
[9] Gilles, B. (2009) Brick and Sustainable Development. GIE BATC Billbrickclay, Paris.
[10] Guillaud, H., Joffroy, T. and Reward, P. (1995) Volume 2, Design and Construction Manual, CRATerre-EAG.
[11] Kornmann, M. (2005) Clay Building Materials. Preparation and Properties, Mars, SEPTIMA Editions.
[12] Rigassi, V. (1995) Volume 1 of the BTC Production Manual, CRA Terre-EAG.
[13] Alcantara, A.C.S., Beltrao, M.S.S., Oliveira, H.A., Gimenez, I.F. and Barreto, L.S. (2008) Characterization of Ceramic Tiles Prepared from Two Clays from Sergipe—Brazil. Applied Clay Science, 39, 160-165.
[14] Morel, C., Alexanian, P. and The Majority, L. (1966) The Infrared Absorption Spectra of Natural Minerals. Bulletin Society of Ceramics, 3.
[15] Arib, A., Sarhiri, A., Moussa, R., Remmal, T. and Gomina, M. (2007) Structural and Mechanical Properties on the Basis of Sound: Influence of the Source of Feldspar. CR Chemistry, Science Direct, 502-510.
[16] Bailon, J. and Dorlot, J. (2000) Minerals. 3rd Edition, Presses Internationales Polytechnique, Montreal, 1-736.
[17] Bakam, A., Kordikontar, K.M. and Laterite, I. (2004) Stabilization Test with the Cellulosic Fibers. African Journal of Science and Technology, Science and Engineering, 1, 22-28.
[18] Suits, L.D., Sheahan, T.C., Wen, B., Aydin, A. and Duzgoren-Aydin, N.S. (2002) A Comparative Study of Particle Size Analyses by Sieve-Hydrometer and Laser Diffraction Methods. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 25.
[19] Neira, J.B., Monte, A.L. and Romerol, L.L. (2009) Ceramics of Ategua (Córdoba, Spain): Mineralogical and Petrographic Study. Applied Clay Science, 42, 529-537.
[20] Goose, A. (1993) Physical Chemistry Sintering. Editions Hermès, Paris, 1-147.
[21] Bloodworth, A.J., Highley, D.E. and Mitchell, C.J. (1993) Industrial Minerals Laboratory Manual: Kaolin. Technical Report, 1-76.
[22] Hassan, A. and Abdelkar, F. (2007) Manuel of Hands Soil Mechanics. University Publication Center, Tunis, 116.
[23] Brindley, G.W., Kao, C.-C., Harrison, J.L., Lipsicas, M. and Raythatha, R. (1986) Relation between Structural Disorder and Other Characteristics of Kaolinites and Dickites. Clays and Clay Minerals, 34, 239-249.
[24] Brindley, G.W. and Nakahira, M. (1959) The KaoIinite-Mullite Reaction Series: I, A Survey of Outstanding Problems. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 42, 311-314.
[25] Brown, G. and Brindley, G.W. (1980) X-Ray Diffraction Procedures for Clay Mineral Identification. In: Brown, G. and Brindley, G.W., Eds., Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and Their X-Ray Identification, Mineralogical Society, London, 305-359.
[26] Bertrand, G. and Pirraud, B. (1982) Clay Mineralogy, II: Classification and Nomenclature. Masson, Paris.
[27] Calabria, J.A., Vasconcelos, W.L. and Boccaccini, A.R. (2009) Microstructure and Chemical Degradation of Adobe and Clay Bricks. Ceramics International, 35, 665-671.
[28] Carty, W. (1999) The Colloidal Nature of Kaolinite. The American Ceramic Society Bulletin, 78, 72-76.
[29] CERAMeUNIE (2003) Suggested Best Available Techniques (BAT) Document for the European Ceramics Industry.
[30] CERATEC (1987) Earth Blocks Stabilized, Production Technology, 31.1.
[31] Chen, C.Y., Lan, G.S. and Tuan, W.H. (2000) Preparation of Mullite by the Reaction Sintering of Kaolinite and Alumina. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 20, 2519-2525.
[32] Christidis, G. (2011) Industrial Clays. Notes in Mineralogy, Volume 9, Mineralogical European Union, 341-414.
[33] Sanglerat Costet, J.G. (1981) During the Soil Mechanics Practices, Volume 1, Plasticity and Calculation of the Settlement. Dunodedition, Paris, 1-339.
[34] CRA-Terre (1991) Pressure Earth Blocks, Foundations, Eschborn, GATE, 27.1.
[35] CRAterreCDI (1996) Pressure Earth Blocks Process Equipment.
[36] CRATèrreEAG (1995) Pressure Earth Blocks. Production Manual, Eschborn, GATE.
[37] Delon, J., et al. (1982) Employment Opportunities in the Charente Kaolin Cast Paper and Cardboard. Bulletin of Mineralogy.
[38] Djangang, C.N., Elimbi, A., Melo, U.C., Lecomte, G.L., Nkoumbou, C., Soro, J., et al. (2008) Sintering of Clay- Chamotte Ceramic Composites for Refractory Bricks. Ceramics International, 34, 1207-1213.
[39] Dondi, M., Marsigli, M. and Venturi, I. (1999) Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Clay Bricks: Comparison between Fast Firing and Traditional Firing. British Ceramic Transactions, 98, 12-18.
[40] Callaud, A. (1993) Introduction to the Study of Industrial Clays of Cameroon. Annals of Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, 11-16.
[41] Fagela, N., Boski, T., Likhoshway, L. and Oberhaensli, H. (2003) Late Quaternary Clay Mineral Record in Central Lake Baikal (Academician Ridge, Siberia). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 193, 159-179.
[42] Ferd, S. (2004) Ceramic Guides, Standards and Specifications. Sion and Monthey, 1-11.
[43] Gonzalez, I., Galan, E., Miras, A. and Aparicio, P. (1998) New Uses for Brick-Making Clay Materials from the Bailen Area (Southern Spain). Clay Minerals, 33, 453-465.
[44] Guerraoui, F., Zamama, M. and Ibnoussina, M. (2008) Mineralogical and Geotechnical Characterization of Clays Used in Ceramics in Safi (Morocco). African Journal of Science and Technology, Science and Engineering Series, 9, 1-11.
[45] Guggenheim, S., Adams, J.M., Bain, D.C., Bergaya, F., Brigatti, M.F. and Drits, V.A. (2006) Summary of Recommendations of Nomenclature Committees Relevant to Clay Mineralogy: Report of the Association Internationale pour l’Etude des Argiles (AIPEA) Nomenclature Committee for 2006. Clay Miner, 41, 863-877.
[46] Good Plowman, D. (1993) Air Respond Buildings, Built Suitable Buildings in Tropical and Subtropical Areas. Publications SKAT.
[47] Harben, P. (1999) The Industrial Minerals Handybook: A Guide to Markets, Specifications & Prices. Minerals International Information Ltd.
[48] Hart, J.R., Zhu, Y. and Pirard, E. (2011) Particle Size and Shape Characterization: Current Technology and Practice. In: Christidis, G.E., Ed., Advances in the Characterization of Industrial Minerals, Volume 9, Mineralogical Society of America, 77-127.
[49] Harvey, C. and Murray, H. (1997) Industry-Tone in the 21st Century. A Perspective of Research, Technology and Application. Applied Clay Science, 285.
[50] Hetier, J.M., Yoshinaga, N. and Weber, F. (1977) Formation of Clay Minerals in Ando-Soils under Temperate Climate. Clay Minerals, 12, 299-307.
[51] Holtz, R. and Kovacs, W. (1991) Introduction to the Issue Polytechnic of Montreal, Quebec. Geotechnical Engineering, 808.
[52] Guillaud, H. and Hermann, H. (1989) Construction Contract Earth. Volume 1, Editions Brackets, Paris, 1-355.
[53] Humbel, F. (1965) Studies of Saline Soils of Northern Cameroon (Maroua). Yaoundé ORSTOM, Paris, 68.
[54] Ibnoussina, M., et al. (2004) Geotechnical Behavior of Clays Autumn Brown Clay Lalla Fatna (Safi, Morocco). Annals Society Geology of North.
[55] Jouenne, C. (1984) Contract and Ceramic Materials. Editions Septima, Paris, 1-657.
[56] Jordan, A. (1966) The Technology of Refractory Ceramic Products. Editions Gauthier-Villard, Paris, 1-590.
[57] Kabre, S., Traore, K. and Blanc, P. (1998) Mineralogy of Clay Raw Material from Burkina Faso and Niger Used for Ceramic Wares. Applied Clay Science, 12, 463-477.
[58] Kamseu, E., et al. (2007) Characterization of Porcelain Compositions Use of Two Clays from Cameroon China. Ceramics International, 851-857.
[59] Kornman, M. (2005) Clay Building Materials. Edition Septima, Paris, 1-275.
[60] Ligas, P., Uras, I., Dondi, M. and Marsigli, M. (1997) Kaolinitic Materials from Romana (North-West Sardinia, Italy) and Their Ceramic Properties. Applied Clay Science, 12, 145-163.
[61] Belkacemi Merabet, D. H. (2003) Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Kaolin Tamazert (Algeria). Annales De Chimie-science Des Materiaux.
[62] Mitchell, D. and Vincent, A. (1997) Exploration and Evaluation of Plastic Sedimentary Clays for the Fine Ceramics Industry. Vol. 2.
[63] Mpelle, M. (1997) Formulation Experiments the Production of Ceramic Tiles of Clay Yaoundé. Journal Cameroon of Building Materials, 1, 16-20.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.