Economic and Environmental Effects of Installing Distributed Energy Resources into a Household

Abstract

Improving energy efficiency in the residential sector is a pressing issue in Japan. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts of introducing the following distributed energy resources: photovoltaics (PV), a fuel cell, and a battery. We estimate electricity and hot water demand profiles of a household by using simulated living activities. Electric power from a residential PV system is also calculated from the observed solar radiation. By using mixed integer programming, we perform a cost minimization operating simulation of a residential PV, fuel cell, and battery. The result suggests that we can create a net-zero energy house by installing both a PV system and a fuel cell into one house. On the other hand, using a battery with a fuel cell increases the household energy cost, and has few effects on CO2 emission reduction.

Share and Cite:

Ozawa, A. and Yoshida, Y. (2015) Economic and Environmental Effects of Installing Distributed Energy Resources into a Household. Low Carbon Economy, 6, 41-50. doi: 10.4236/lce.2015.62006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Agency for Natural Resources and Energy (2014) Annual Report on Energy.
[2] National Institute for Environmental Studies (2015) National GHGs Inventory Report of Japan.
[3] Panayiotou, G., Kalogirou, S. and Tassou, S. (2012) Design and Simulation of a PV and a PV-Wind Standalone Energy System to Power a Household Application. Renewable Energy, 37, 355-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.06.038
[4] Arboit, M., Diblasi, A., Fernández Llano, J.C. and de Rosa, C. (2008) Assessing the Solar Potential of Low-Density Urban Environments in Andean Cities with Desert Climates: The Case of the City of Mendoza, in Argentina. Renewable Energy, 33, 1733-1748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2007.11.007
[5] Kaewniyompanit, S., Sugihara, H. and Tsuji, K. (2009) An Evaluating Model of Photovoltaic Power Output Variations for an Energy System Planning in an Urban Area. IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 4, 534-544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tee.20440
[6] Bozchalui, M.C., Hashmi, S.A., Hassen, H., Canizares, C.A. and Bhattacharya, K. (2012) Optimal Operation of Residential Energy Hubs in Smart Grids. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 3, 1755-1766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2012.2212032
[7] Shabani, B., Andrews, J. and Watkins, S. (2010) Energy and Cost Analysis of a Solar-Hydrogen Combined Heat and Power System for Remote Power Supply Using a Computer Simulation. Solar Energy, 84, 144-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2009.10.020
[8] Shimoda, Y., Okamura, T., Yamaguchi, Y., Yamaguchi, Y., Taniguchi, A. and Morikawa, T. (2010) City-Level Energy and CO2 Reduction Effect by Introducing New Residential Water Heaters. Energy, 35, 4880-4891. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.08.043
[9] Ulleberg, O., Nakken, T. and Eté, A. (2010) The Wind/Hydrogen Demonstration System at Utsira in Norway: Evaluation of System Performance Using Operational Data and Updated Hydrogen Energy System Modeling Tools. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 35, 1841-1852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.10.077
[10] Hamada, Y., Goto, R, Nakamura, M., Kubota, H. and Ochifuji, K. (2006) Operating Results and Simulations on a Fuel cell for Residential Energy Systems. Energy Conversion and Management, 47, 3562-3571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2006.03.017
[11] Tanrioven, M. and Alam, M.S. (2006) Modeling, Control, and Power Quality Evaluation of a PEM Fuel Cell-Based Power Supply System for Residential Use. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 42, 1582-1589. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2006.882661
[12] NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, Ed. (2011) Data Book on National Time Use Survey in 2010. NHK Publishing, Tokyo. (In Japanese)
[13] Japan Meteorological Business Support Center (2009) 1-Minute Data of Surface Weather Observation. (In Japanese)

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.