Influence of Maternal and Larval Immunisation against Lactococcus garviae Infection in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walaum) Lysozyme Activity and IgM Level

DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2015.53030   PDF   HTML   XML   2,665 Downloads   3,168 Views   Citations

Abstract

This study evaluated efficacy of maternal and larval immunisation against Lactococcus garviae infection and on the lysozyme and immunoglobulin (IgM) levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walaum). Forty-eight-day-old larvae (mean weight 96 mg) originating from injected weekly with letrozole and immunised, only immunised and non-immunised parents were experimentally infected with the L. garvieae, and the mortality rate was recorded daily. Larvae were vaccinated by immersion at 58 days post hatch with live L. garvieae (109 cells/mL) for 15 min. Every third day post larvae vaccination, two larvae from each group were collected for analysis lysozyme (by a method based on the ability of lysozyme to lyse the bacterium Micrococcus lysodeikticus) and IgM (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)) parameters. Vaccinated and control larvae were tested for protection against L. garvieae 30 days post larvae immunization when the larvae were 88 days old. Larvae were challenged by bath exposure with live L. garvieae (109 cells/mL) for 2 min and monitored for mortality for at least 10 days following challenge. The challenge experiment with L. garvieae showed a significant reduction in larvae from immunised (54.44% ± 0.64%) and injected weekly with letrozole and immunised fish (52.96% ± 0.97%) compared to larvae from control fish (62.96% ± 2.22%). Vaccinated larvae originated from injected weekly with letrozole and immunised parents showed significantly higher lysozyme activity compared to other fish groups. Vaccinated larvae showed significantly less mortality compared to controls. The relative percent survival (RPS) values of larvae from only immunised, injected weekly with letrozole and immunised and non-immunised parents vaccinated with L. garvieae were 67.36% ± 0.9%, 68.05% ± 0.66% and 48.27% ± 2.79% respectively. The results indicate that the effect of maternal immunization rainbow trout against L. garvieae infection by eliciting the immune responses as indicated by an increase in the IgM level and lysozyme activity.

Share and Cite:

Akbary, P. , Mirvaghefi, A. , Akhlaghi, M. and Fereidouni, M. (2015) Influence of Maternal and Larval Immunisation against Lactococcus garviae Infection in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walaum) Lysozyme Activity and IgM Level. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 5, 258-269. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2015.53030.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Kim, J.H., Go, J., Cho, C.R., Kim, J.I., Lee, M.S. and Parka, S.C. (2013) First Report of Human Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis Caused by the Fish Pathogen Lactococcus garvieae. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 51, 712-714.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02369-12
[2] Harikrishnan, R., Balasundaram, C. and Heo, M.S. (2010) Lactobacillus sakei BK19 Enriched Diet Enhances the Immunity Status and Disease Resistance to Streptococcosis Infection in Kelp Grouper, Epinephelus bruneus. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 29, 1037-1043.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2010.08.017
[3] Hosseini, M.H., Akhlaghi, M. and Moazzeni Jula, G. (2011) Experimental Vaccine against Lactococcosis in Cultured Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Archives of Razi Institute, 66, 51-57.
http://www.archrazi.com/browse.php?a_code=A-10-1-1
[4] Haghighi Karsidani, S., Soltani, M., Nikbakhat-Brojeni, G., Ghasemi, M. and Skall, H.F. (2010) Molecular Epidemiology of Zoonotic Streptococcosis/Lactococcosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Aquaculture in Iran. Iran Journal of Microbiology, 2, 198-209.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3279792/
[5] Erfanmanesh, M.S., Pirali, E., Mohammadian, S. and Taherimirghaed, A. (2012) Genetic Characterization of Streptococcus iniae in Diseased Farmed Rainbow Trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in Iran. Scientific World Journal, 594073-594079.
[6] Ricci, G., Ferrario, C., Borgo, F., Rollando, A. and Fortina, M.G. (2012) Genome Sequences of Lactococcus garvieae TB25, Isolated from Italian Cheese, and Lactococcus garvieae LG9, Isolated from Italian Rainbow Trout. Journal of Bacteriology, 194, 1249-1250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.06655-11
[7] Ravelo, C., Magariños, B., Herrero, M.C., Costa, L., Toranzo, A.E. and Romalde, J.L. (2006) Use of Adjuvanted Vaccines to Lengthen the Protection against Lactococcosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 251, 153-158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.05.027
[8] Petrie-Hanson, L. and Ainsworth, A.J. (2001) Ontogeny of Channel Catfish Lymphoid Organs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 81, 113-127.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-2427(01)00331-2
[9] Hanif, A., Bakopoulos, V., Leonardos, I. and Dimitriadis, G.J. (2005) The Effect of Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Broodstock and Larval Vaccination on the Susceptibility by Photobacterium damsela subsp. Piscicida and on the Humoral Immune Parameters. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 19, 345-361.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2004.12.009
[10] Zapata, A., Diez, B., Cejalvo, T., Frías, C.G. and Cortés, A. (2006) Onetogeny of the Immune System of Fish. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 20, 126-136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2004.09.005
[11] Pavone, M.E. and Bulun, S.E. (2012) Aromatase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Endometriosis: A Review. Fertility and Sterility, 98, 1370-1379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.08.053
[12] Chumsri, S., Howes, T., Bao, T., Sabnis, G. and Brodie, A. (2011) Aromatase, Aromatase Inhibitors, and Breast Cancer. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 125, 13-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2011.02.001
[13] Milla, S., Depiereux, S. and Kestemont, P. (2011) The Effects of Estrogenic and Androgenic Endocrine Disruptors on the Immune System of Fish: A Review. Ecotoxicology, 20, 305-319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-010-0588-7
[14] Zhang, S.C., Wang, Z.P. and Wang, H.M. (2013) Maternal Immunity in Fish. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 39, 72-78.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2012.02.009
[15] Li, L., Zhang, S.C., Tong, Z. and Liu, J. (2010) In Vivo Effect of 17-β-Estradiol on Plasma Immunoglobulin Levels and Leukocyte Density in Zebrafish Danio rerio. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 28, 527-532.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00343-009-9048-8
[16] Swain, P. and Nayak, S.K. (2009) Role of Maternally Derived Immunity in Fish. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 27, 89-99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2009.04.008
[17] Sharifiyazdi, H., Akhlaghi, M., Tabatabaei, M. and Mostafavi Zadeh, S.M. (2010) Isolation and Characterization of Lactococcus garvieae from Diseased Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) Cultured in Iran. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, 11, 342-350.
[18] Romalde, J.L., Alvarez, A.L., Ravelo, C., Toranzo, A.E. and Mendez, J.B. (2004) Oral Immunization Using Alginate Microparticles as a Useful Strategy for Booster Vaccination against Fish Lactococcosis. Aquaculture, 236, 119-129.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.02.028
[19] Shilling, A.D., Carlson, D.B. and Williams, D.E. (1999) Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, as a Model for Aromatase Inhibition. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 70, 89-95.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-0760(99)00090-4
[20] Bridle, A.R., Koop, B.F. and Nowak, B.F. (2012) Identification of Surrogates of Protection against Yersiniosis in Immersion Vaccinated Atlantic Salmon. PLoS ONE, 7, 40841-40850.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040841
[21] Ellis, A.E. (1990) Lysozyme Assays. In: Stolen, J.S., Fletcher, T.C., Anderson, D.P., Roberson, B.S. and Van Muiswinkel, W.B., Eds., Techniques in Fish Immunology, SOS Publications, Fair Haven, 101-103.
[22] Bakopoulos, V., Peric, Z., Rodger, H., Adamms, A. and Richards, R. (1997) First Report of Fish Pasteurellosis from Malta. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 9, 26-33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1577/1548-8667(1997)009<0026:FROFPF>2.3.CO;2
[23] Buschmann, A.H., Tomova, A., López, A., Maldonado, M.A., Henríquez, L.A., Ivanova, L., et al. (2012) Salmon Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Marine Environment. PLoS ONE, 7, 42724-42735.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042724
[24] Peeler, E.J. and Taylor, N.G.H. (2011) The Application of Epidemiology in Aquatic Animal Health—Opportunities and Challenges. Veterinary Research, 42, 94-109.
http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/42/1/94
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-42-94
[25] Wang, Z., Zhang, S., Tong, Z., Li, L. and Wang, G. (2009) Maternal Transfer and Protective Role of the Alternative Complement Components in Zebrafish Danio rerio. PLoS ONE, 4, 4498-4505.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0004498
[26] Delamare-Deboutteville, J., Wood, D. and Barnes, A.C. (2006) Response and Function of Cutaneous Mucosal and Serum Antibodies in Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) Acclimated in Seawater and Freshwater. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 21, 92-101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2005.10.005
[27] Rombouta, J.H.W.M., Abellic, L., Picchiettid, S., Scapigliatid, G. and Kiron, V. (2011) Teleost Intestinal Immunology. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 31, 616-626.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2010.09.001
[28] Salinas, I., Zhang, Y.A. and Sunyer, J.O. (2011) Mucosal Immunoglobulins and B Cells of Teleost Fish. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 35, 1346-1365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2011.11.009
[29] Uribe, C., Folch, H., Enriquez, R. and Moran, G. (2011) Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Teleost Fish: A Review. Veterinarni Medicina, 56, 486-503.
[30] Van Herreweghe, J.M., Vanderkelen, L., Callewaert, L., Aertsen, A., Compernolle, G., Declerck, P.J., et al. (2010) Lysozyme Inhibitor Conferring Bacterial Tolerance to Invertebrate Type Lysozyme. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 67, 1177-1188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-009-0241-x
[31] Thilagam, H., Gopalakrishnan, S., Bo, J. and Wang, K.J. (2009) Effect of 17-β-Estradiol on the Immunocompetence of Japanese Sea Bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 28, 1722-1731.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/08-642.1
[32] Akbary, P., Mirvaghefi, A.R., Akhlaghi, M., Amiri, B.M. and Fereidouni, M.S. (2013) Effects of the Aromatase Inhibitore Letrozole on Serum Immunoglobulin and Lysozyme Levels in Immunized Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) Females. International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 1, 273-280.
http://www.npajournals.com/ijab/index.php/ijab/article/view/115
[33] Sun, L., Shao, X., Wu, Y., Li, J., Zhou, Q., Lin, B., et al. (2011) Ontogenetic Expression and 17β-Estradiol Regulation of Immune-Related Genes in Early Life Stages of Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes). Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 30, 1131-1137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2011.02.020
[34] ángeles Esteban, M., Cuesta, A., Chaves-Pozo, E. and Meseguer, J. (2013) Influence of Melatonin on the Immune System of Fish: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 7979-7999.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms14047979

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.