Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Brazilian Apples

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.68075   PDF   HTML   XML   3,715 Downloads   4,838 Views   Citations


Apple consumption is related to the prevention of chronic diseases due to the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids that have antioxidant capacity. However, phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity can vary between varieties. The aim of this study was to analyze the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of thirty-six apple varieties to establish a classification of these fruits. The TPC was analyzed according to the Folin-Ciocalteau method and AC was analyzed using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used for the classification of the fruit. The TPC ranged from 456 to 1583 mg/kg of fresh fruit (catechin equivalents) and the AC ranged from 5606 to 23,719 mmol/kg (fresh fruit). The Pearson linear correlation showed significant differences in the association between TPC and AC (r: 0.79, p < 0.001). The apples were classified into the following five groups according to their AC: very high (8%), high (17%), medium (47%), low (11%) and very low (17%). The varieties classified in the group with very high AC were Carícia, Mollies and Imperatriz. The Gala varieties showed a great variability in AC, with values classified as high and low, while the Fuji, with less variability, was classified as low AC. The classification of apples based on TPC and AC using hierarchical cluster analysis was performed and the results can be of great value to geneticists, producers and consumers.

Share and Cite:

Zardo, D. , Zielinski, A. , Alberti, A. and Nogueira, A. (2015) Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Brazilian Apples. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 727-735. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.68075.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Müller, L., Gnoyke, S., Popken, A.M. and Böhm, V. (2010) Antioxidant Capacity and Related Parameters of Different Fruit Formulations. Food Science and Technology, 43, 992-999.
[2] Mirmiran, P., Noori, N., Zavareh, M.B. and Azizi, F. (2009) Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. Metabolism, 58, 460-468.
[3] Zhang, Y., Krueger, D., Durst, R., Lee, R., Wang, D., Seeram, N. and Heber, D. (2009) International Multidimensional Authenticity Specification (IMAS) Algorithm for Detection of Commercial Pomegranate Juice Adulteration. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 2550-2557.
[4] Khan, S.A., Chibon, P.Y., de Vos, R.C., Schipper, B.A., Walraven, E., Beekwilder, J., van Dijk, T., Finkers, R., Visser, R.G., van de Weg, E.W., Bovy, A., Cestaro, A., Velasco, R., Jacobsen, E. and Schouten, H.J. (2012) Genetic Analysis of Metabolites in Apple Fruits Indicates an mQTL Hotspot for Phenolic Compounds on Linkage Group 16. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 2895-2908.
[5] Kelble, A. (2005) Spices and Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrition & Food Science, 35, 81-87.
[6] Spencer, J.P.E., Abd El Mohsen, M.M., Minihane, A.M. and Mathers, J.C. (2008) Biomarkers of the Intake of Dietary Polyphenols: Strengths, Limitations and Application in Nutrition Research. The British Journal of Nutrition, 99, 12-22.
[7] Gerhauser, C. (2008) Cancer Chemopreventive Potential of Apples, Apple Juice, and Apple Components. Planta Medica, 74, 1608-1624.
[8] McGhie, T.K., Hudault, S., Lunken, R.C. and Christeller, J.T. (2012) Apple Peels, from Seven Cultivars, Have Lipase-Inhibitory Activity and Contain Numerous Ursenoic Acids as Identified by LC-ESI-QTOF-HRMS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 482-491.
[9] Hui, Y.H. (2006) Nutritional Values of Fruits. In: Moreno, C.S., Ed., Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, 30-31.
[10] D’archivio, M., Filesi, C., Di Benedetto, R., Gargiulo, R., Giovannini, C. and Masella, R. (2007) Polyphenols, Dietary Sources and Bioavailability. Annali dell’ Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 43, 348-361.
[11] Carbone, K., Giannini, B., Picchi, V., Lo Scalzo, R. and Cecchini, F. (2011) Phenolic Composition and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Different Apple Varieties in Relation to the Cultivar, Tissue Type and Storage. Food Chemistry, 127, 493-500.
[12] Fu, L., Xu, B.T., Xu, X.R., Gan, R.Y., Zhang, Y., Xia, E.Q. and Li, H.B. (2011) Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of 62 Fruits. Food Chemistry, 129, 345-350.
[13] Khanizadeh, S., Tsao, R., Rekika, D., Yang, R., Charles, M.T. and Rupasinghe, H.P.V. (2008) Polyphenol Composition and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Selected Apple Genotypes for Processing. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 21, 396-401.
[14] Zardo, D.M., Silva, K.M., Guyot, S. and Nogueira, A. (2013) Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of the Principal Apples Produced in Brazil. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 64, 611-620.
[15] Drogoudi, P.D., Michailidis, Z. and Pantelidis, G. (2008) Peel and Flesh Antioxidant Content and Harvest Quality Characteristics of Seven Apple Cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 115, 149-153.
[16] Vieira, F.G.K., Borges, G.S.P., Copetti, C., Amboni, R.D.M.C., Denardi, F. and Fett, R. (2009) Physico-Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Six Apple Cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh) Grown in Southern Brazil. Scientia Horticulturae, 122, 421-425.
[17] Banco Regional de Desenvolvimento do Extremo Sul (2011) Superintendência de Planejamento. Cadeia produtiva da maçã no Brasil: Limitaç?es e potencialidades. BRDE, Porto Alegre.
[18] Brasil. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Informativo 54. Secretaria de Política Agrícola, Brasília, 6.
[19] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (2013) Levantamento sistemático da Produção Agrícola. Pesquisa Mensal de Previsão e Acompanhamento das Safras Agrícolas no Ano Civil. Vol. 26, 129 p.
[20] ABPM. Associação Brasileira de Produtores de Maçã (2011)
[21] Reid, M.S., Padfield, C.A.S., Watkins, C.B. and Harman, J.E. (1982) Starch Iodine Pattern as a Maturity Index for Granny Smith Apples. I. Comparison with Flesh Firmness and Soluble Solids Content. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 25, 229-237.
[22] McGhie, T.K., Hunt, M. and Barnett, L.E. (2005) Cultivar and Growing Region Determine the Antioxidant Polyphenolic Concentration and Composition of Apples Grown in New Zealand. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 3065-3070.
[23] Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, J.A. (1965) Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagent. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144-158.
[24] Pulido, R., Bravo, L. and Saura-Calixto, F. (2000) Antioxidant Activity of Dietary Polyphenols as Determined by a Modified Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power Assay. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 3396-3402.
[25] Benzie, I.F.F. and Strain, J.J. (1996) The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of “Antioxidant Power”: The FRAP Assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239, 70-76.
[26] Jacques, A.C., Pertuzatti, P.B., Barcia, M.T. and Zambiazi, R. (2009) Nota científica: Compostos bioativos em pequenas frutas cultivadas na região sul do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Brazilin Journal of Food Technology, 12, 123-127.
[27] Zardo, D.M., Dantas, A.P., Vanz, R., Wosiacki, G. and Nogueira, A. (2009) Intensidade de pigmentação vermelha em maças e sua relação com os teores de compostos fenólicos e a capacidade antioxidativa. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 29, 148-154.
[28] Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e de Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina (2006) A Cultura da Macieira. Pallotti, Florianópolis, 743 p.
[29] Wu, J., Gao, H., Zhao, L., Liao, X., Chen, F., Wang, Z. and Hu, X. (2007) Chemical Compositional Characterization of Some Apple Cultivars. Food Chemistry, 103, 88-93.
[30] Lata, B., Przeradzka, M. and Binkowska, M. (2005) Great Differences in Antioxidant Properties Exist between 56 Apple Cultivars and Vegetation Seasons. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 8970-8978.
[31] Karaman, S., Tütem, E., Baskan, K.S. and Apak, R. (2010) Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Composition of Some Apple Juices with Combined HPLC-CUPRAC Assay. Food Chemistry, 120, 1201-1209.
[32] García, Y.D., Valles, B.S. and Lobo, A.P. (2009) Phenolic and Antioxidant Composition of By-Products from the Cider Industry: Apple Pomace. Food Chemistry, 117, 731-738.
[33] Wojdylo, A., Oszmianski, J. and Laskowsk, P. (2008) Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of New and Old Apple Varieties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 6520-6530.
[34] D’abrosca, B., Pacifico, S., Cefarelli, G., Mastellone, C. and Fiorentino, A. (2007) ‘Limoncella’ Apple, an Italian Apple Cultivar: Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Activity. Food Chemistry, 104, 1333-1337.
[35] Petkovsek, M.M., Stampar, F. and Veberic, R. (2007) Parameters of Inner Quality of the Apple Scab Resistant and Susceptible Apple Cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.). Scientia Horticulturae, 114, 37-44.
[36] Noakes, M. and Roupas, P. (2010) Apples, Their Antioxidants and Benefits to Human Health. Pre-Clinical and Clinical Health Substantiation. CSIRO-Food and Nutritional Sciences, Austrália, 53 p.
[37] Zheng, H.Z., Kim, Y.I. and Chung, S.K. (2012) A Profile of Physicochemical and Antioxidant Changes during Fruit Growth for the Utilisation of Unripe Apples. Food Chemistry, 131, 106-110.
[38] Lee, C.Y. and Smith, N.L. (2000) Apples: An Important Source of Antioxidants in the American Diet. New York Fruit Quarterly, 8, 15-17.
[39] Le Marchand, L., Murphy, S.P., Hankin, J.H., Wilkens, L.R. and Kolonel, L.N. (2000) Intake of Flavonoids and Lung Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 92, 154-160.
[40] Boyer, J. and Liu, R.H. (2004) Apple Phytochemicals and Their Health Benefits. Nutrition Journal, 3, 5.
[41] Blum, D. (2007) The Verdict on “Apple a Day”: How One Fruit Mystifies Our Pursuit of Health. Science & Spirit, 18, 24-29.
[42] Jedrychowski, W., Maugeri, U., Popiela, T., Kulig, J., Sochacka-Tatara, E., Pac, A., Sowa, A. and Musial, A. (2010) Case-Control Study on Beneficial Effect of Regular Consumption of Apples on Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Population with Relatively Low Intake of Fruits and Vegetables. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 19, 42-47.
[43] Konopacka, D., Jesionkowska, K., Kruczynska, D., Stehr, R., Schoorl, F., Buehler, A., Egger, S., Codarin, S., Hilaire, C., Höller, I., Guerra, W., Liverani, A., Donati, F., Sansavini, S., Martinelli, A., Petiot, C., Carbó, J., Echeverria, G., Iglesias, I. and Bonany, J. (2010) Apple and Peach Consumption Habits across European Countries. Appetite, 55, 478-483.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.