Prevalence, Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Diabetes Mellitus among Jazan Population, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence is increasing in Arabian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia is ranked as the 7th country world widely estimated to have the highest numbers of people with diabetes in 2000 and 2030. Objectives: This study intended to estimate the prevalence, risk factors of diabetes among adult population of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Observational cross sectional survey conducted among adult Saudi population aged 15 years of age and over who attended eight Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Jazan region. Standardized questionnaire as well as diabetic registry was utilized for this research. The questionnaire involved risk factors of DM and sociodemographic variables. Statistical analysis involved: chi-square test (or Fisher exact test where applicable) was used to evaluate the prevalence of DM among different sub-groups. The crude odds ratios (OR) were estimated by univariate analysis to observe the association of each variable with DM. Results: The overall prevalence of DM among study participants was found to be 12.3% (95% CI: 10.9 - 13.8). The prevalence of DM according to gender showed that women are of significantly higher prevalence 19.0% with confidence interval (95% C.I. 15.9 - 22.6), compared with only 9.8% for male (95% CI. 8.4 - 11.4). Participant’s body mass index, age, family history of diabetes and daily exercise and work involved physical activities that showed a significant association with DM. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of diabetes calls for urgent steps towards prevention and health promotion, programs designed to reduce its burden.

Share and Cite:

Bani, I. (2015) Prevalence, Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Diabetes Mellitus among Jazan Population, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 5, 115-122. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2015.52014.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Amos, A.F., McCarty, D.J. and Zimmet, P. (1997) The Rising Global Burden of Diabetes and Its Complications: Estimates and Projections to the Year 2010. Diabetic Medicine, 14, S7-S85.;2-i
[2] Wild, S., Roglic, G., Green, A., Sicree, R. and King, H. (2004) Global Prevalence of Diabetes: Estimates for the Year 2000 and Projections for 2030. Diabetes Care, 27, 1047-1053.
[3] Al-Nozha, M.M., Arafah, M.R., Al-Mazrou, Y.Y., Al-Maatouq, M.A., Khan, N.B., Khalil, M.Z., Al-Khadra, A.H., Al-Marzouki, K., Abdullah, M.A., Al-Harthi, S.S., Al-Shahid, M.S., Nouh, M.S. and Al-Mobeireek, A. (2004) Coronary Artery Disease in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, 25, 1165-1171.
[4] Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (2002) Physical Activity, Fitness and Fatness among Saudi Children and Adolescents: Implications for Cardiovascular Health. Saudi Medical Journal, 23, 144-150.
[5] Alwan, A. (1997) Noncommunicable Diseases a Major Challenge to Public Health in the Region. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 3, 6-16.
[6] Saadia, Z., Rushdi, S., Alsheha, M., Saeed, H. and Rajab, M. (2010) A Study of Knowledge Attitude And Practices Of Saudi Women Towards Diabetes Mellitus. A (KAP) Study in Al-Qassim Region. The Internet Journal of Health, 11, Number 2.
[7] Angeles-Llerenas, A., Carbajal-Sánchez, N., Allen, B., Zamora-Muñoz, S. and Lazcano-Ponce, E. (2005) Gender, Body Mass Index and Sociodemographic Variables Associated with Knowledge about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among 13,293 Mexican Students. Acta Diabetologica, 42, 36-45.
[8] Al-Nozha, M.M., Al-Maatouq, M.A., Al-Mazrou, Y.Y., Al-Harthi, S.S., Arafah, M.R., Khalil, M.Z., Khan, N.B., Al-Khadra, A., Al-Marzouki, K., Nouh, M.S., Abdullah, M., Attas, O., Al-Shahid, M.S. and Al-Mobeireek, A. (2004) Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, 25, 1603-1610.
[9] Al-Daghri, N.M. (2011) Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Other Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in the Central Region, Saudi Arabia (Riyadh Cohort 2): A Decade of an Epidemic. BMC Medicine, 9, 76-81.
[10] Kelestimur, F., Cetin, M., Pasaoglu, H., et al. (1999) The Prevalence and Identification of Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Kayseri, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Acta Diabetologica, 36, 85-91.
[11] Nyenwe, E.A., Odia, O.J., Ihekwaba, A.E., et al. (2003) Type 2 Diabetes in Adult Nigerian’s: A Study of Its Prevalence and Risk Factors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 62, 177-185.
[12] Fatani, H.H., Mira, S.A. and El-Zubier, A.G. (1987) Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Saudi Arabia. Diabetes Care, 10, 180-183.
[13] International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Prevalence, 2005.
[14] Liu, L., Yin, X., et al. (2012) Global Variability in Diabetes Mellitus and Its Association with Body Weight and Primary Healthcare Support in 49 Low- and Middle-Income Developing Countries. Diabetic Medicine, 29, 995-1002.
[15] Fletcher, B., Gulanick, M. and Lamendola, C. (2002) Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 16, 17-23.
[16] Van der Sande, M.A.B., Walraven, G.E.L., Milligan, P.J.M., et al. (2001) Family History: An Opportunity for Early Interventions and Improved Control of Hypertension, Obesity and Diabetes. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79, 321-328.
[17] Aksu, H., Pala, K. and Aksu, H. (2006) Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Nilufer District, Bursa, Turkey. International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, 14, 98-102.
[18] Mohieldein, A.H., Al Zohairy, M.A., et al. (2011) Awareness of Diabetes Mellitus among Saudi Non-Diabetic Population in Al-Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology, 2, 14-19.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.