On the Performability of Hierarchical Wireless Networked Control Systems


This paper investigates the performability of hierarchical Wireless Networked Control Systems (WNCS). The WNCS studied can operate in two modes: passive supervisor and active supervisor. It is first shown that the Markov models for both modes are identical. Performability models are then developed and a case study shows how to use these models to help make design decisions. More specifically, it is observed that the performability of a passive supervisor system increases in time while that of an active supervisor system decreases in time.

Share and Cite:

Makled, E. , Halawa, H. , Daoud, R. , Amer, H. and Refaat, T. (2015) On the Performability of Hierarchical Wireless Networked Control Systems. Intelligent Control and Automation, 6, 126-133. doi: 10.4236/ica.2015.62013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Skeie, T., Johannessen, S. and Brunner, C. (2002) Ethernet in Substation Automation. IEEE Control Systems, 22, 43-51.
[2] Nilsson, J. (1998) Real-Time Control Systems with Delays. PhD Thesis, Department of Automatic Control, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund.
[3] Lian, F.L., Moyne, J.R. and Tilbury, D.M. (2001) Networked Control Systems Toolkit: A Simulation Package for Analysis and Design of Control Systems with Network Communication. Technical Report UM-ME-01-04.
[4] Daoud, R.M., ElSayed, H.M., Amer, H.H. and Eid, S.Z. (2003) Performance of Fast and Gigabit Ethernet in Networked Control Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems MWSCAS, Cairo, 27-30 December 2003, 505-508.
[5] Felser, M. (2005) Real-Time Ethernet Industry Prospective. Proceedings of the IEEE, 93, 1118-1129.
[6] Decotignie, J.D. (2005) Ethernet-Based Real-Time and Industrial Communications. Proceedings of the IEEE, 93, 1102-1117.
[7] Official Site for PROFIBUS and PROFINET. http://www.profibus.com
[8] Bosch (1991) CAN Specification Version 2.0, ISO 11898.
[9] EtherNet/IP Adaptation of CIP Specification (2001).
[10] International Electrotechnical Commission. IEC 61784-1 and 61784-2. www.iec.ch
[11] IEEE 802.3 Standard.
[12] Pedreiras, P., Almeida, L. and Gai, P. (2002) The FTT-Ethernet Protocol: Merging Flexibility, Timeliness and Efficiency. Proceedings of the IEEE Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems ECRTS, Vienna, 19-21 June 2002, 134-142.
[13] Steigmann, R. and Endresen, J. (2006) Introduction to WISA: WISA—Wireless Interface for Sensors and Actuators. White Paper, ABB.
[14] Refaat, T.K., Daoud, R.M., Amer, H.H. and Makled, E.A. (2010) WiFi Implementation of Wireless Networked Control Systems. Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems INSS, Kassel, 15-18 June 2010, 145-148.
[15] IEEE 802.11 Standard.
[16] Refaat, T.K., Daoud, R.M. and Amer, H.H. (2012) Fault-Tolerant Controllers in Wireless Networked Control System Using 802.11g. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology ICIT, Athens, 19-21 March 2012, 783-788.
[17] Haverkort, B.R., Marie, R., Rubino, G. and Trivedi, K. (2001) Performability Modelling: Techniques and Tools. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.
[18] Makled, E.A, Halawa, H.H., Daoud, R.M., Amer, H.H. and Refaat, T.K. (2015) WiFi-Based Hierarchical Wireless Networked Control Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology ICIT, Seville, 17-19 March 2015, 1964-1969.
[19] Siewiorek, D.P. and Swarz, R.S. (1998) Reliable Computer Systems—Design an Evaluation. A. K. Peters, Natick.
[20] Official Site for SHARPE. http://sharpe.pratt.duke.edu/

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.